IoT Interview Questions and Answers

IoT Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 25th Sep 2020, Blog, Interview Question

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If you are aiming to face IoT interview and looking for IoT interview question and answers, then you are at right place. There are numerous opportunities from various top organizations in the world.  You have an opportunity to get ahead in your career in IoT Development. Multisoft systems provide you the latest an advanced IoT Interview Questions and answers that will certainly help you to crack your interview and gain the job as IOT Developer.

1. What is IoT?

Ans:

IoT stands for an Internet of Things. It is largely a network using which matters can talk to each other using the internet as an approach to communication between them. All of the matters should be IP protocol enabled on the way to have this concept viable. Not one but more than one technology are concerned to make IoT an exquisite fulfillment.

2. What is Arduino Shields?

Ans:

Arduino shields are modular circuit boards that piggyback onto your Arduino to instill it with extra functionality.

3. There may be some questions on Linux OS, as it is most popular in the IoT domain?

Ans:

One can refer the same on net on very basics such as what are the qualities of linux OS? What are the features of linux OS over other Operating Systems etc.

This set of IoT(Internet Of Things) interview questions and answers are useful for freshers and experienced level of job positions.

4. What is PWM?

Ans:

PWM stands for Pulse Width Modulation. Pulse width modulation allows us to vary how much time the signal is high in an analog fashion. While the signal can only be high (usually 5V) or low (ground) at any time, we can change the proportion of time the signal is high compared to when it is low over a consistent time interval.

5. What are the important components that exist in the Internet of Things?

Ans:

The important components that exist in the Internet of Things are as follows:

1. Hardware

2. Software

3. Verbal exchange infrastructure

6. List some applications of PWM in IOT?

Ans:

Dimming LED, controlling the speed of the DC motor, controlling the direction of a servo motor etc.

7. What are the most used sensors types in IOT?

Ans:

  • Temperature sensors
  • Proximity sensor
  • Pressure sensor
  • Gas sensor
  • Smoke sensor
  • IR sensors
  • Motion detection sensors

8. What is BLE?

Ans:

BLE stands for Bluetooth Low Energy. Bluetooth Low Energy uses the same 2.4 GHz radio frequencies as classic Bluetooth but uses less power to transmit distance over a short distance

9. How does the internet of the whole thing relate to the internet of factors?

Ans:

The “net of everything” builds on the inspiration of the “net of things” by using community intelligence that lets in convergence, orchestration and visibility across previously disparate structures.

10. What is the use of BLE in IOT?

Ans:

Unlike classic Bluetooth, BLE remains in sleep mode constantly except for when a connection is initiated. It is used in applications that do not need to exchange large amounts of data and can, therefore, run on battery power for years at a cheaper cost, therefore it is used as one of the means of exchanging data between the devices.

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11. Give examples of the Impact of the Internet of Things (IoT) on our lives?

Ans:

With interconnected devices, you can better arrange your lifestyles and be extra productive, safer, smarter and informed than ever earlier than.

As an instance how smooth it’ll be that allows you to begin your day if your alarm clock is not only capable of waking you up however also able to talk together with your brewer to tell it that you are awake on the same time it notifies your geezer to start water heating.

12. What is MicroPython?

Ans:

MicroPython is a lean and efficient implementation of the Python 3 programming language that includes a small subset of the Python standard library and is optimized to run on microcontrollers such as NodeMCU.

13. What role does the network play in the Internet of Everything?

Ans:

The network plays a critical role in the Internet of Everything ? it must provide an intelligent, manageable, secure infrastructure that can scale to support billions of context-aware devices.

14. How many hardware serial interfaces are in ESP 32?

Ans:

There are 3 hardware serial interfaces in ESP32. 

15. What effects will the internet of things (IoT) have on infrastructure and smart cities region?

Ans:

The competencies of the clever grid, smart homes, and its combined with IoT components in other public utilities, including roadways, sewage, and water transport can make a contribution to greater included and useful infrastructure, particularly in towns.

16. What are Subscribers and Publishers in MQTT?

Ans:

Publisher – The devices which transmit or send data over the MQ broker. Subscribers – The devices which consume or read data over the MQ broker.

17. How Wireless Communications might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

Many observers believe that issues relating to access to the electromagnetic spectrum will need to be resolved to ensure the functionality and interoperability of IoT devices. Access to spectrum, both licensed and unlicensed, is essential for devices and objects to communicate wirelessly. IoT devices are being developed and deployed for new purposes and industries, and some argue that the current framework for spectrum allocation may not serve these new industries well.

18. Example of some MQTT services?

Ans:

Mosquitto MQTT, Cloud MQTT, and PubNub are the commonly known MQTT services available.

19. What function does the community play within the lot?

Ans:

The network plays a crucial function in the net of the entirety. It needs to provide a clever, practical, comfortable infrastructure that may scale to assist billions of context-conscious gadgets.

20. Can NodeMCU act as a web server?

Ans:

Yes, with the help of ESP8266WebServer Arduino library. This library is for ESP8266. Such similar libraries are also available for other NodeMCU boards.

21. How does the Internet of Everything relate to the Internet of Things?

Ans:

The “Internet of Everything” builds on the foundation of the “Internet of Things” by adding network intelligence that allows convergence, orchestration and visibility across previously disparate systems.

22. What is Windows 10 IOT Core?

Ans:

Windows 10 IOT Core is a full-fledged operating system based on Windows 10 specifically designed to operate on embedded devices. This will empower you to build a single universal app experience.

23. How might wireless communications have an effect on the development and implementation of the internet of things (IoT)?

Ans:

Both certified and unlicensed electromagnetic spectrum is vital for devices and gadgets to communicate wirelessly. For brand spanking new purposes and industries, IoT devices are being deployed & evolved, and some argue that the current day framework for spectrum allocation might not serve those new industries well.

24. Can IOT take over the human mind?

Ans:

No, IOT cannot take the place of the human brain. As the human brain is very complex, self-learning, and the decision making capability makes every known device incomparable to it.

25. What is the difference between the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Sensor Business?

Ans:

Sensors can be used in lots of different ways, many of which don’t need to be internet connected.

IoT also includes the control side, not just the sensing side.

26. What are Android things?

Ans:

It is an Android-based operating system particularly built for embedded devices like Raspberry Pi and so on.

27. How does IoT relate to the net of factors?

Ans:

The “net of the whole thing” builds on the inspiration of the “net of factors” by adding community intelligence that lets in convergence, orchestration, and visibility throughout previously disparate structures.

28. How did the Thermocouples work?

Ans:

It will be measuring the temperature with a change in voltage if temperature increases thermocouple output voltage will be increased

29. What sensors can be used in Agriculture?

Ans:

1.soil moisture sensor

2.Airflow sensors

3.Electrochemical sensors

30. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Economic Growth?

Ans:

Several economic analyses have predicted that the IoT will contribute significantly to economic growth over the next decade, but the predictions vary substantially in magnitude. The current global IoT market has been valued at about $2 trillion, with estimates of its predicted value over the next five to ten years varying from $4 trillion to $11 trillion. Such variability demonstrates the difficulty of making economic forecasts in the face of various uncertainties, including a lack of consensus among researchers about exactly what the IoT is and how it will develop.

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31. What is the purpose of Airflow sensors?   

Ans:

It used to measure the air level in soil,we can measure it from one location or dynamically get from multiple places from the garden.

32. How is business IoT (IIoT) exclusive from the internet of things (IoT)?

Ans:

Internet of Things:- Everyday consumer-level gadgets related to one another and made smarter and barely self-aware.

For example: Consumer cellular phone, smart thermostat.

Industrial Internet of Things:- System and structures in industries and groups in which failures may be disastrous.

For examples: Man or woman health video display units and alert structures in hospitals.

33. How did you make a small radar? Is it possible?

Ans:

yes it’s possible, by using ultrasonic sensor we can make our own radar, which is detected object presence and distance

34. What is the Internet of Everything?

Ans:

The Internet of Everything is the intelligent connection of people, process, data, and things.

35. What are the features of influxDB?

Ans:

  • Great support visualization tools
  • Distributed time series database
  • No external dependencies

36. Difference between Arduino and Raspberry Pi?

Ans:

Arduino: A Openly programmable Usb microController, it can execute only one program at a time.

Raspberry Pi: A credit card sized computer, we can run multiple programs at a time and it has more computing power compared to Arduino.

37. What is a “Thing” in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

The “Thing” commonly referred to by the concept of the Internet of Things is any item that can contain an embedded, connected computing device. A “Thing” in the IoT could be a shipping container with an RFID tag or a consumer’s watch with a WiFi chip that sends fitness data or short messages to a server somewhere on the Internet.

38. What is the Purpose of the MQTT protocol?

Ans:

It provides the connectivity between application and middleware from net side networks to other side networks.

39. What is the difference between the (IoT) and the sensor commercial enterprise?

Ans:

Sensors may be utilized in masses of various approaches of lots which don’t want to be net related. IoT also includes the managing aspect, no longer simply the sensing aspect.

40. How did you program the Arduino?  

Ans:

By using Arduino IDE, I can program the Arduino. Another method I can use is Node.js Johnny five module to control Arduino.

41. How the Internet of Things (IoT) makes a difference to businesses?

Ans:

Businesses focus on getting products to the marketplace faster, adapting to regulatory requirements, increasing efficiency, and most importantly, persisting to innovate. With a highly mobile workforce, evolving customer, and changing supply chain demand, the IoT can move your enterprise forward, starting today.

42. What is meant by a library in Arduino?

Ans:

The library is the collection of code, which is already written for controlling the sensor or module.

43. What influences will the internet of things (IoT) have on monetary growth?

Ans:

Several monetary analyses have anticipated that the IoT will make contributions extensively to monetary growth over the following decade, however, the predictions range substantially in magnitude. The modern-day international iot market has been valued at approximately $2 trillion, with estimates of its predicted fee over the following five to ten years varying from $4 trillion to $11 trillion.

44. Meaning of Sketch in Arduino?       

Ans:

In Arduino each unit of code is called Sketch which is uploaded and run on the Board.

45. Why will the Internet of Things(IoT) be successful in the coming years?

Ans:

As the telecommunication area is becoming extra giant and efficient, broadband internet is broadly available. With technological advancement, it is now less inexpensive to provide essential sensors with integrated wifi abilities making connecting devices less costly.

Importantly, the clever phone utilization has passed all the predicted limits and the telecommunication region is already operating on its toes to make their clients satisfied by improving their infrastructure. As IoT gadgets want no separate conversation than the present one, constructing IoT tech could be very reasonably priced and highly attainable.

46. It’s possible to reduce the size of my sketch?

Ans:

Yes it’s possible, by Removing unused libraries from the top of the code and making our code very simple and short, Then only we can reduce the size of the sketch.

47. Why is the Internet of Everything happening now?

Ans:

The explosion of new connections joining the Internet of Everything is driven by the development of IP-enabled devices, the increase in global broadband availability and the advent of IPv6.

48. List some of the wearable Arduino boards?

Ans:

1.Lilypad Arduino simple

2.Lilypad Arduino main board

3.Lilypad Arduino usb

4.Lilypad Arduino simple snap.

49. How Might Cybersecurity affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT), especially in the USA?

Ans:

The safety of devices and the facts they accumulate, process, and transmit is often referred to as a top problem in our online world. Because the variety of linked objects in the IoT grows, so will the chance of successful intrusions will increase in charges from those incidents.

Cybersecurity includes shielding information structures, their additives and contents, and the networks that join them from intrusions or attacks concerning theft, disruption, damage, or different unauthorized or wrongful actions.

50. How did you control the Arduino using python?   

Ans:

By connecting the serial port of arduino we can control the arduino using python. To connect the serial port we need to import the serial module in python.

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51. What companies are working on the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

At this point, the easier question might be who isn?t working on an IoT product. Big names like Samsung, LG, Apple, Google, Lowe’s and Philips are all working on connected devices, as are many smaller companies and startups. Research group Gartner predicts that 4.9 billion connected devices will be in use this year, and the number will reach 25 billion by 2020.

52. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on the Health Care Sector?

Ans:

IoT has many applications inside the healthcare field, in both fitness tracking and treatment, together with telemedicine and telehealth. Applications may additionally contain the usage of a medical era and the internet to provide lengthy-distance health care and training. Medical devices, which may be wearable or non-wearable, or maybe implantable, injectable, or ingestible, can allow far off monitoring of an affected person’s important signs, persistent situations, or different indicators of health and wellbeing.

53. What is GainSpan’s GS2000 Protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

GainSpan’s GS2000 is one such tech which uses both ZigBee and Wi-Fi. It makes optimum use of power by putting the device into energy-saving standby mode when no data transmission is taking place. Only when the device is awaked or checked for connection failure is the high power consumption connection of Wi-Fi used.

54. What are the main Social and Cultural Impacts of the Internet Of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

The IoT may also create webs of connections, a good way to basically transform the manner people and things interact with each other.

Some observers have proposed that the growth of iot will bring about a hyper-connected world wherein the seamless integration of gadgets and people will purpose the internet to vanish as a separate phenomenon. In this type of system, cyberspace and human space would seem to correctly merge right into an unmarried surrounding, with unpredictable but probably huge societal and cultural influences.

55. Real-Time usage of Raspberry pi?

Ans:

1.Home Automation

2.Internet Radio

3.Portable web server

4.manipulating the robots

56. How Energy Consumption might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

Energy consumption can also be an issue. IoT objects need energy for sensing, processing, and communicating information. If objects isolated from the electric grid must rely on batteries, replacement can be a problem, even if energy consumption is highly efficient. That is especially the case for applications using large numbers of objects or placements that are difficult to access. Therefore, alternative approaches such as energy harvesting, whether from solar or other sources, are being developed.

57. What is the  GPIO ? 

Ans:

GPIO – General purpose input/output. It’s a programmable pin which may input or output pins, During run time users control these pins programmatically. for more details https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General-purpose_input/output.

58. What will happen in terms of jobs losses and skills as IoT makes devices and robots more intelligent?

Ans:

It is obvious that the jobs panorama will change dramatically in the next two decades. However, it is going to be a sluggish method and whether or not we’re organized to cope with it going to depend  on training coverage as virtual coverage.

59. Which module is used to control the gpio in python?

Ans:

gpiozero is used to control the gpio pins in Raspberry pi. By using this we can control buttons, LEDs, robots and more things.

60. Will IoT actually work over the internet or will it have its own dedicated wide area network?

Ans:

Interoperability between numerous wireless and networking requirements continues to be a difficulty and something that forums and standards bodies are looking to deal with. The IoT is a whole myriad of different methods of connecting things. It is able to be a constant, wi-fi nfc, mobile, extremely-slim band or maybe ZigBee.

61. Why should i prepare MongoDB for IOT compared to other databases?

Ans:

It’s the document model based storage database. Hence its faster compared to other databases, Rather than that it supports more than 20 programming language support for integration.

62. What is Bluegiga APx4 Protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

BLE and Wi-Fi together can be used without interference as they are compilable to coexistence protocols. The Bluegiga APx4 is one such solution which supports both BLE and Wi-Fi and is based on a 450MHz ARM9 processor.

63. Explain how you insert bulk data in Mongodb, and can write a query for that?

Ans:

Query:                                                             

  • var huge= db.iotCollection.initializeUnorderedBulkOp();
  • huge.insert({location:”India”, count:456,  polls:456});
  • huge.insert({location:”Russia:, count:567, polls:567});
  • huge.insert({location:”China”, count:789,  polls:789});
  • huge.insert({location:”USA”, count:123, polls:123});
  • huge.execute().

64.What are the important Components of an Internet of Things?  

Ans:

Hardware- This will make physical items responsive and give them functionality to store records and respond to instructions.

Software Program – Allowing the facts collection, storage, processing, manipulating and instructing.

Conversation Infrastructure – Most essential of all is the communication infrastructure which consists of protocols and technologies which allow two bodily gadgets to exchange information.

65. What is DB command?

Ans:

DB command is mention the currently selected database name in Mongodb;

66. How High-Speed Internet might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

Use and growth of the IoT can also be limited by the availability of access to high-speed Internet and advanced telecommunications services, commonly known as broadband, on which it depends. While many urban and suburban areas have access, that is not the case for many rural areas, for which private-sector providers may not find the establishment of the required infrastructure profitable, and government programs may be limited.

67. What are the layers of OSI?

Ans:

  • Physical layer
  • Data link layer
  • Network layer
  • Transport layer
  • Session layer
  • Presentation layer
  • Application layer

68. What are the main challenges of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

Safety is one of the important concerns of professionals who believe definitely endless linked gadgets and statistics sharing can severely compromise one’s safety and properly being. Through IoT devices, we can open a gateway for an entire community to hack, not like other hacking episodes which compromise online information and privacy.

69. List some Advance IOT projects?

Ans:

  • Control the robot by Hand gesture (like iron man)
  • Office theft prevention system
  • facial recognition based intruder alert system.

70. What’s a “factor” inside the context of the internet of things (IoT)?

Ans:

The “aspect” normally cited via the idea of the net of things is an object that may contain an embedded, related computing tool. An “element” inside the IoT can be a transport box with an RFID tag or a client’s watch with a WiFi chip that sends health statistics or short messages to a server somewhere on the internet.

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71. What kind of information do the Internet of Things (IoT) objects communicate?

Ans:

The answer relies upon the nature of the object, and it can be easy or complex. For instance, a clever thermometer might have the most effective one sensor, used to communicate ambient temperature to a remote weather-monitoring center. A wi-fi clinical tool would possibly, in assessment, use diverse sensors to inform someone body temperature, pulse, blood stress, and other variables to a clinical carrier company through a computer or mobile telephone.

72. How many pins are available in an Arduino UNO board?

Ans:

Totally 28 pins are available, for pin names please find at this link

73. How wireless Communications may affect the development and Implementation of the internet of factors (IoT)?

Ans:

Many observers accept as true that troubles relating to getting right of entry to the electromagnetic spectrum will want to be resolved to make sure the functionality and interoperability of IoT devices. access to spectrum, each licensed and unlicensed, is essential for devices and objects to communicate wirelessly. IoT devices are being developed and deployed for brand new functions and industries, and a few argue that the modern-day framework for spectrum allocation won’t serve these new industries well.

74. Which Companies and Organizations Support the Industrial IoT?

Ans:

Many organizations are knowing the potential and importance of the economic IoT. The latest study takes a look at the way of opinions and is published by Forbes indexed rti as the number one most influential organization for the economic net of things. Other influencers covered Google, Cisco, GE, Omron, Datalogic and Emerson electric.

75. How Remote Updation of Software might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Several other technical issues might impact the development and adoption of IoT. For example, if an object’s software cannot be readily updated in a secure manner, that could affect both function and security. Some observers have therefore recommended that smart objects have remote updating capabilities. However, such capabilities could have undesirable effects such as increasing power requirements of IoT objects or requiring additional security features to counter the risk of exploitation by hackers of the update features.

76. How does the net of the whole thing relate to the internet of factors?  

Ans:

The “net of the whole thing” builds on the muse of the “internet of things” including network intelligence that permits convergence, orchestration and visibility across previously disparate structures.

77. What are the main parts of IoT systems?

Ans:

IoT system consists of three main parts:

  • Sensors
  • Network connectivity
  • Data storage applications.

78. What are security concerns related to IoT?

Ans:

This is the common IoT Interview Questions asked in an interview. Data security and privacy are major concerns related to IoT. These devices are vulnerable to hacking and cloud endpoints could be used by hackers to attack servers. Software developers and device designers have to ensure adequate security and privacy measures.

79. What are the risks and challenges that we should be aware of when it comes to the Internet of Everything?

Ans:

The risks factors that are associated with IOT that we should be aware of are:

  • Privacy
  • Network congestion
  • Security
  • Electricity consumption at the peaks

80. What are the major Privacy and Security Issues in case of Internet Of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

Cyber attacks may also compromise privacy, resulting in access to and exfiltration of identifying or other sensitive information about an individual. For example, an intrusion into a wearable device might permit exfiltration of information about the location, activities, or even the health of the wearer.

81. Explain the IoT protocol stack?   

Ans:

IoT has 4 protocol layers:

  • Sensing and information: Includes various smart sensor devices based on GPS, RFID, Wi-Fi etc.
  • Network connectivity: Layer is based on a wired and wireless network such as WLAN, WMAN, Ethernet, optical fiber and more.
  • Information processing layer
  • Application layer

82. What is Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Protocol for an Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans:

Nokia originally introduced this protocol as wibree in 2006. Additionally known as Bluetooth smart this protocol presents the same range coverage with a good deal of decreased strength intake because of the unique Bluetooth. It has comparable bandwidth with narrow spacing as utilized by Zigbee. Low electricity latency and decreased complexity make it more appropriate to include low-cost microcontrollers.

83. Why is Zigbee protocol so important for the Internet of Things implementation?

Ans:

Zigbee protocol is well known for its minimum power consumption; it maintains IEEE 802.15.4(2003) standards while utilization.

84. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have?

Ans:

Many observers predict that the boom of the IoT will bring fantastic blessings via greater integration, efficiency, and productiveness across many sectors of U.S. and global economies.

Among those typically cited are agriculture, energy, healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation. Tremendous impacts may also be felt greater broadly on monetary growth, infrastructure and cities, and man or woman clients. However, each coverage and technical demanding situations, consisting of protection and private troubles, would possibly inhibit the growth and effect of IoT improvements.

85. What is the difference between IOT devices and embedded devices?

Ans:

Internet of things is a type of embedded system that connects to the internet. Embedded systems tend to be small software programs that implement a few functions. The Internet of Things may be updated constantly according to the environment and learn by itself.

86. Why is the Internet of Everything happening at this juncture of time?

Ans:

The explosion of latest connections joining the Internet of Everything is driven by the development of IP-enabled devices, the boom in worldwide broadband availability and the appearance of ipv6.

87. What are the top 5 Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications in the world?

Ans:

  • Asset tracking and/or monitoring in some form or some other (stolen automobiles, fleet, construction system, wood pellets, tank level tracking, and many others.) seems to be the biggest.
  • Insurance telematics is huge as it gives insurance groups the possibility to cut threat and force higher/extra appealing pricing.
  • Utilities/automatic meter reading/clever grids – plenty of regulation and funding into this in the intervening time. There are plenty of countrywide solutions because the requirements and business case are driven in very numerous ways.
  • Automotive is also very big and is driven by consumer demand.
  • mHealth is also there but not that big in size.

88. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on the Transportation Sector?

Ans:

Transportation structures are becoming increasingly connected. New motor automobiles are ready with features including worldwide positioning structures (gps) and in-vehicle enjoyment, as well as advanced driver help structures (adas), which utilize sensors inside the vehicle to help the motive force, for example with parking and emergency braking.

89. Examples of MEMS sensor?

Ans:

MPU6050- Gyroscope, ADXL345 – Accelerometer, piezoelectric sensor etc.

90. What are the features of Linux OS over other Operating Systems etc?

Ans:

This set of IoT(Internet Of Things) interview questions and answers are useful for freshers and experienced level of job positions.

91. What is an Arduino?

Ans:

Arduino is an open-source electronics platform which has easy to use hardware and software. Arduino boards are a Microcontroller which is capable of reading input from sensors to controlling motors and etc. programmatically.

92. What is a Raspberry Pi?

Ans:

Raspberry Pi is a credit card sized computer which is capable of doing all operations like a conventional computer. But it also has other built-in features like onboard Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPIO pins to communicate with other external Things

93. How will the Internet of Things (IoT) impact the sustainability of Environment or Business?

Ans:

The Internet of Things (IoT) can significantly reduce carbon emissions by making business and industry more efficient. “By managing street lights more efficiently you can save approximately 40% of the energy used to make them run,”

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