DRONES Tutorial

DRONES Tutorial

Last updated on 25th Sep 2020, Blog, Tutorials

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What are Drones?

Drones are remote control flying machines capable of handling a variety of tasks. While organizations like the military have been using drones for a long time, the general public now has greater access to quality, easy to fly drones for a variety of purposes. Some people use drones to make art with camera angles and a wide range of actions. Others use drones in racing or other extreme sports hobbies. Industries are also getting into drones, using them for checking on crops, reaching places where it’s tough for humans to go, and extending the reach of oversight through a simple maneuver.

Learn about Drones

These unmanned aerial vehicles offer real-time videos and a better way to move around in places where it’s tough for humans to go. Whether you’re a hobbyist who wants to play with the latest technology or you have FAA clearance for higher scale projects, learning about the latest drone technology could help you. It can also help you when choosing your drone. It’s important to consider features like wifi connectivity, battery life, remote control features, and flight time. Getting the wrong drone for the job can put a damper on your plans, so let’s take a look at what you might need to know.

Drone Courses and Certifications

ACTE offers courses and certifications designed in partnership with leaders in the field, doing amazing things with autonomous robotics. You can study what goes into building a drone or understand how drones fit into specific industries. Most drones are ready to fly. For an overview of how that happens, PennX offers a course on Robotics to teach you about dynamics and control. For targeted information, USM provides an overview of Drones and Autonomous Systems for specific understandings of those mechanics. For industry-specific information, Wageningen offers a course on Drones and Agriculture, and USM offers a course on applications in Emergency Systems. Each class is designed to provide the basis for how autonomous systems can change our understanding of robotics.

Applications for Drones

These miniature quadcopters are more than just a hobby. Camera drones can help with security. Smartphones put art and video in the hands of budding filmmakers. The best drones available are suddenly affordable for the general public, whether it’s a DJI Mavic 2 Pro or that mini drone from a big box store. Selfie drones, racing drones, and other ready to fly small drones have applications in both the personal and professional world. Understand flight modes and building drone applications across a variety of platforms (iOS and Android included) with courses from edX and understand how professional, consumer drones are changing our world.

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Types

ARF“Almost Ready to Fly”: a UAV which comes assembled with almost all parts necessary to fly. Components like the controller and receiver may not be included.
BNF“Bind and Fly”; the UAV comes fully assembled and includes a receiver. You only need to choose a compatible transmitter and “bind” it to the receiver.
DIY“Do It Yourself”, which is now commonly used to mean “custom”. This normally involves using parts from a variety of different suppliers and creating or modifying parts.
DroneThis is synonymous with UAV. The term “drone” seems to be more common for military use whereas “UAV” is more common for hobby use
HexacopterA UAV which has six motors / propellers.
Multirotor“Multirotor” simply means an aircraft with multiple rotors
OctocopterA UAV which has eight motors / propellers.
QuadcopterA UAV which has four motors / propellers and four support arms. Configurations are normally “+” (the front of the UAV faces one of the arms) or “X” (the front of the aircraft faces between two arms).
RTF“Ready To Fly”: a UAV which comes fully assembled with all necessary parts. Simply charge the battery and fly!
Size (mm)“Size” is normally provided in millimeters (ex 450mm) and represents the greatest point to point distance between two motors on a UAV. Size can also determine the “class” of UAV
SpyderA “Spyder” type UAV (normally quad or hex) is one where the supporting arms are not symmetric in both axes when looked at from the top.
TricopterA UAV which has three motors / propellers, and usually three support arms
UAV“Unmanned Aerial Vehicle” (of any kind)
V-TailA UAV which has four arms, of which the rear two are at an angle to form a ‘V’
X4 / X8X4 and X8 are UAV configurations with four support arms; X4 configurations have one motor at the end of each arm, whereas X8 have two motors per arm (one facing up, the other facing down)
Y3 / Y6Y3 and Y6 are UAV configurations with three support arms; Y3 configurations have one motor at the end of each arm, whereas Y6 have two motors per arm (one facing up, the other facing down)
 Types

Mechanics

CG“Center of Gravity”; this is the point on the aircraft where there is equal weight distributed on all sides.
ClampA “tube clamp” is a device normally used on a round tube in order to connect it to another device (such as a motor mount or a UAVs body).
ConnectorsIn order to plug and unplug wires, connectors are used at the ends of wires. Common connectors for batteries are Deans & XT60, while connectors for the flight controller and sensors are 0.1″ spaced
DampenersThese are molded rubber parts used to minimize vibration transmitted throughout a UAV
FrameThe frame is like the “skeleton” of the aircraft and holds all of the parts together. Simple frames have motors connected to aluminum or other lightweight extrusions (“arm”) which then connect to a central body.
G10This is a material commonly used instead of carbon fiber to make a UAV’s frame since it is very rigid and lightweight, but significantly less expensive
Landing GearMultirotor landing gear normally does not have wheels as you might find on an airplane – this is to prevent it from moving when on the ground and reduce overall weight.
LED“Light Emitting Diode”. These are used to make the UAV visible, primarily at night or low lighting conditions.
Prop Guards“Propeller guards’ ‘ are materials which surround a propeller to prevent the propeller from contacting other objects. They are implemented as a safety feature and a way to minimize damage to the UAV
Retract“Retractable” normally refers to landing gear which has two positions: one for landing and takeoff, and another, which takes up less room or improves visibility, during flight.
ShellThis is an aesthetic / functional cover used to improve resistance to the elements and sometimes improve aerodynamics. Some production UAVs only have a plastic shell which also acts as the “frame”.
Mechanics

Propulsion

BEC“Battery Eliminator Circuit”: a voltage regulator built into the ESC which can provide regulated 5V DC power to any electronics which need it.
BladesPropeller blades are the aerodynamic surface which generates lift. A propeller normally has two to four blades which can be fixed or folding.
CW / CCWCW indicates Clockwise rotation and CCW indicates Counter-Clockwise rotation. On a multi-rotor aircraft, you would normally use pairs of counter-rotating propellers.
ESC“Electronic Speed Controller” is the device which connects to the battery, motor and flight controller and controls the speed at which the motor rotates
LiPo“Lithium Polymer” is the most common battery used in drones and UAVs because of its light weight (versus storage capacity) and high current discharge rates. There are other types of Lithium-based batteries available on the market as well (LiFe, LiMn, LiOn etc)
MotorThe motor is what is used to rotate the propellers; in small UAVs, a brushed motor is most often used, whereas for larger UAVs, a “brushless” motor is much more common
PCBA “Printed Circuit Board” is the flat fiberglass part with many components soldered to it. Many electronic products have a PCB.
Power DistributionIn order to power so many different devices used in a UAV, the battery must be split, which is where the Power Distribution (board or cable) comes into play. It takes the single positive and negative terminals of the battery and provides many different terminals / connection points to which other devices (operating at the same voltage) can receive power.
PropellerThe propellers are what provides the thrust and are more similar to those used in airplanes rather than on helicopters.
Prop AdapterA device used to connect the propeller to the motor.
Prop SaverA type of hub which mounts on top of your motor and replaces the prop adapter. In the event of a crash, a part of the prop saver is lost in an attempt to save the propeller.
ServoA servo is a type of actuator which, provided the right signal, can move to a specific angular position
ThrustThe “thrust” is the force which a specific motor and propeller can provide (at a certain voltage). Usually measured in kilograms (Kg) or pounds (Lbs)
Propulsion

Control

Base / ground / Control StationInstead of (or in addition to) a hand held transmitter, a station (normally in a case or mounted to a tripod) is used to house / integrate the necessary components used to control a UAV. This can include the transmitter, antenna(e), video receiver, monitor, battery, computer and other devices.
BindingThe term “binding” refers to configuring a handheld transmitter so it can communicate with a receiver; if a transmitter came with a receiver, it should have been done at the factory.
ChannelThe number of channels on a transmitter relates to the number of separate signals it can send
Flight ControllerThe “Flight Controller” is what would be considered the “brain” of a UAV and handles all of the data processing, calculations and signals. The core of a flight controller is often a programmable “microcontroller”. The flight controller may have multiple sensors onboard, including an accelerometer, gyroscope, barometer, compass, GPS etc. If the flight controller has the ability to control the aircraft on its own (for example to navigate to specific GPS coordinates), it may be considered to be an “autopilot”.
HarnessThis usually refers to the “Wiring Harness” which are the wires that connect the receiver to the flight controller (and sometimes other devices).
HF/ UHF / VHF“High Frequency”; “Very High Frequency” and “Ultra High Frequency” radio waves. Units are in Hz (Hertz)
ReceiverThis is what processes the information received wirelessly
Sketch / CodeThis is the program which is uploaded to your UAV’s flight controller (similar to a “thought process”)
Transmitter / RadioThe “transmitter” is what generates the control signal(s) wirelessly to the receiver
 Control

Sensors / Orientation

AccelerometerAn accelerometer measures linear acceleration in one to three axes. Units are normally in ‘g’ or gravity. An accelerometer can provide your drone’s orientation with respect to ground
AntennaAntennas are what actually receive or send a signal to and from a UAV (the signal itself having been generated by a transmitter unit). They come in a variety of different types and include directional (strongest in one direction) and omnidirectional
Barometer / Pressure  / AltimeterA Barometer is used to give feedback as to the altitude of the UAV. It measures pressure, and since pressure changes with altitude, your aircraft can “know” its height.
CompassA magnetic compass can provide your compass heading (north / south / east / west)
Flight RecorderA flight recorder records sensor values from your UAV. This feature can sometimes be integrated into the flight controller.
GPS“Global Positioning System”: satellites orbiting the planet send out signals which are picked up by the GPS antenna and are sent to be processed by the GPS receiver to provide geographic coordinates
GyroscopeA gyroscope measures angular acceleration in one or three axes. Units are normally degrees per second squared.
IMU“Inertial Measurement Unit” combines an accelerometer and a gyroscope
MagnetometerIn low cost robotics, a magnetometer is sometimes used to provide compass direction
PitchPitch is the angle of the nose to tail with respect to the ground, or in other words, the rotation of an aircraft about the axis from wing to wing
Pitot TubeA device which measures air speed
RollRoll is the rotation of the aircraft along the axis from its nose to its tail
YawYaw is the rotation of an aircraft about an axis perpendicular (90 degrees to) to the plane formed between the nose / tail and wing tips
Sensors- Orientation
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Video

FPV“First Person View”: The UAV is mounted with a camera and the operator has a live video feed displayed on either a monitor or virtual reality glasses
GimbalA device which carries a camera and is normally actuated using either a servo motor or a brushless DC motor. A gimbal is what can stabilize a camera in flight.
GoProThe GoPro series of action cameras is widely used for taking and/or transmitting video
LCD“Liquid Crystal Display” is a type of screen / monitor used to display the image received by the receiver
OSD“On Screen Display” provides text on the monitor / screen which is being sent from the aircraft (can include altitude, GPS location etc.)
VR“Virtual Reality” glasses or goggles provide the operator with a more “immersive” experience
 Video

Do you Really Want a Custom UAV?

The choice of UAV depends on how much you want to learn about the field. Building a custom UAV can be quite involved as well as dangerous. If you would prefer to simply “get in the air” quickly, we’d suggest the following, in increasing order of complexity:

Toy

Multi-rotor toys are becoming increasingly popular. Most are small, and can fit in the palm of your hand, though some like the A.R. Drone Parrots are larger. Toy multi-rotor UAVs are not necessarily easy to fly, but are more resistant to crashes. Toys tend to be smaller and integrate the frame into the aesthetic shell.

RTF

A “Ready To Fly” kit includes all the parts needed for a complete UAV. Parts include the UAV itself (most often pre-assembled and pre-wired), the hand held transmitter, a battery and charger. The craft is calibrated and should be able to fly with relative ease. These are not, however , indestructible, and a crash may damage the system to the point where it is simply worth buying a new aircraft rather than attempting to repair it.

ARF

An “almost ready to fly” kit is one where the frame, motors and most of the “core” parts are included and fully assembled (or a few parts need to be assembled, largely to help with shipping). Normally an ARF kit requires the addition of a transmitter / receiver and perhaps batteries and charger. Other ARF kits do not include the flight controller itself. You may need to do some calibration because of the additional parts required. We do not suggest a BNF kit as not all transmitters and receivers are compatible with one another.

UAVKit

A kit normally includes most of the important products needed to build a UAV, but may not include the transmitter / receiver, battery and charger or flight controller. Different kits have different package contents, so it is important to see exactly what is included and what additional items will be needed. The contents of a kit should be compatible with one another.

Custom

A custom setup is where you combine a variety of different products from a variety of different manufacturers and get them to work together. This approach requires that you understand which components are needed to make a UAV and will be the focus of this series of articles.   Do you see terms which are missing and would be useful? Feel free to add them in the comments below.

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