Manual Testing Tutorial: Definition Concepts, Types & Tool | Guide to Learn [BEST & NEW]
Last updated on 09th Aug 2022, Blog, Tutorials
Manual testing is a software testing process in which test cases are an executed manually without using the any automated tool.
All test cases executed by the tester manually according to their end user’s perspective.
It ensures that whether the application is working, as mentioned in the requirement document or not.
Test cases are planned and implemented to finish almost 100 percent of the software application.
Test case reports are generated manually.
Manual Testing is one of the most fundamental testing processes as it can found both visible and hidden defects of the software.
The difference between an expected output and output, given by the software, is explained as a defect.
The developer fixed the defects and handed it to the tester for a retesting.
Manual testing is mandatory for each newly developed software before automated testing.
This testing required a great efforts and time, but it gives the surety for bug-free software.
Manual Testing required knowledge of manual testing techniques but not any for automated testing tool.
Why need manual testing
Whenever an application comes into the market, and it is unstable or having a bug or problems or generating a problem while end-users are using it.If don’t need to face these kinds of issues ,need to perform one round of testing to made the application bug free and stable and delivered a quality product to the client, because if the application is bug free, the end-user will used the application more conveniently.
If the test engineer does manual testing, can test the application as an end-user perspective and got more famous with the product, which helps them to write the correct test cases are the application and give the rapid feedback of the application.
Types of Manual Testing
There are different methods used for manual testing.
Every technique is used according to its testing criteria.
Types of manual testing are to be given below:
- White Box Testing
- Black Box Testing
- Gray Box Testing
The white box testing is done by Developer, where they check each and every line of the code before giving it to the Test Engineer.The code is visible for the Developer during the testing, that’s why it is also known as a White box testing.
Black box testing
The black box testing is done by the Test Engineer, where they can verify the functionality of the application or the software according to a customer /client’s needs.The code is not visible when performing a testing; that’s why it is known as a black-box testing.
Gray Box testing
- Gray box testing is a combination of the white box and Black box testing.
- It can be performed by the person who knew both coding and testing.
- And if the single person performed a white box, as well as black-box testing for an application, is known as Gray box testing.
How to perform Manual Testing
- First, tester observed all documents related to the software, to select the testing areas.
- Tester analyzed requirement documents to cover all the requirements stated by the customer.
- Tester develops the test cases are according to the requirements of document.
- All test cases are executed manually by using the Black box testing and white box testing.
- If bugs occurred then the testing team an informs the development team.
- The Development team fixed the bugs and handed software to the testing team for a retest.
Software Build Process
Once the requirement is gathered, it will provide to the 2 various team development and testing team.
After getting the requirement, the concerned developer will start a writing the code.
And in the meantime, the test engineer are understands the need and prepares the required documents, up to now a developer may cfinish the code and save in the Control Version tool.
After that, the code modifies in the UI, and these changes handle by a one separate team, which is also known as the build team.
This build team will take the code and initiate compile and compress the code with the help of a build tool. Once got some output, the output goes in the zip file, which is known as Build (application or software).
Every Build will have some individual number like (B001, B002).
Then this specific Build will be installed in the test server. After that, the test engineer will access all this test server with the help of the Test URL and starting testing the application.
If the test engineer find any bug, will be reported to a concerned developer.
Then the developer will reproduce the bug in the test server and fix a bug and again save the code in the Control version tool, and it will install the new updated file and remove the old file; this process is continued until get the stable Build.
Once got the stable Build, it will handed by over to a customer.
Advantages of Manual Testing
It does not need programming knowledge while using a Black box method.It is used to test a dynamically changing the GUI designs.Tester interacts with a software as a real user so that they are able to discovered usability and user interface issues.It ensures that the software is a hundred percent bug-free.It is an cost-effective.Simple to learn for new testers.
Disadvantages of Manual Testing
- It need a large number of human resources.
- It is a very time-consuming.
- Tester develops test cases based on their skills and an experience.
- There is no evidence with that they have covered all the functions or not.
- Test cases are cannot be used again.
- Need to develop a separate test cases for every new software.
- It does not offer a testing on all aspects of testing.
- Since 2 teams work together, sometimes it is complex to understand each other’s motives, it can mislead the process.
Manual testing tools
In manual testing, various types of testing like unit, integration, security, performance, and bug tracking, that have various tools .
Let’s us understand them one by one:
It is most generally used to performance testing tools.LoadRunner is mainly used to support the performance testing for the wide range of procedures, number of approaches, and application environments.
The main purpose of an executing the LoadRunner tool is to classify the most general sources of performance issues quickly.
Features of LoadRunner
LoadRunner tool contains a n-numbers of applications, whichd the time to understand and explain the reports.
Can get thorough a performance test reports by using a LoadRunner tool.
It will deduce the cost of distributed load testing and also provide the operational tool for deployment tracking.
Citrus is an integration testing tool, which is the most generally used test framework.
It is written in a Java programming language. It is mostly used to request and respond to the server-side and client-side and validate the XML JSON files.
To finish the end-to-end use case testing, citrus encourage several HTTP, JMS, and SOAP protocols.
Characteristics of Citrus
- It is used to send and receive the messages.
- Citrus is available are both an open-source and a licensed in the market.
- It delivers the low-cost solution.
- Can authenticate the database by using a citrus tool.
- It will explain the sequence of messages, offer the test plan, and document the test coverage.
- It made the message and verifies the responses.
ZAP is a open-source web application security scanner. It is stands for Zed Attack Proxy.
It is the more effective Open Web Application Security Projects [OWASP].
Features of ZAP
It supports more operating systems such as Windows, Linux, OS X.
It had a plugin-based architecture.
It contains an online marketplace that allow us to add new or updated features.
ZAP’s GUI control panel is simple to use.
NUnit is one of the most commonly used unit testing tools. It is an open-source tool and primarily derived from a JUnit. In other words, NUnit tool is entirely redesigned to become the advantage of more.Net language qualities. For example: Reflection-related capabilities.Other custom attributes.
Characteristics of NUnit
- It allows the assertions as a static method of an advantage class.
- It sustains a data-driven tests.
- It supports several platforms, like .NET core Xamarin mobile, Silverlight, and effective framework.
- The ability of NUnit help us to execute a tests simultaneously.
- It used a console runner to load and also execute the tests.
The most regularly used in bug tracking tool is JIRA, which is an open-source tool.It is used for the bug tracking, project management, and issue tracking. In this tool, simply track all kinds of bugs or defects related to the software and produced by the test engineers.
Features of JIRA
- It is the time-saving tool.
- Jira is used to trace the defects and issues.
- It is used to establish the documentation of tasks.
- Jira is a too useful tool in tracking the improvement of our documentation.
Another testing tool of manual testing is SonarQube, which increase our workflow with continuous code quality and code security.It is flexible with the use of the plug-ins.
Features of Sonarqube
It encourage several programming languages like C, C++, Python, JAVA, HTML, CSS, VB.NET, PHP, COBOL, PL/SQL, etc.
Under the GNU Lesser General Public License, Sonarqube is freely available.
SonarQube is affiliate with some important external tools such as GitHub, Active Directory, LDAP, and others.
SonarQube merged with a Visual Studio, Eclipse, and IntelliJ IDEA development environments due to a SonarLint plug-ins.
JMeter is an open-source tool that is used to test the performance of both the static and dynamic resources and dynamic web applications.
It is completely designed on the JAVA application to load the functional test behavior and calculate the application’s performance.
It facilitates users or developers to use the source code for the development of the other applications.
Features of JMeter
- It is platform-independent, which allow a JVM like Windows, Mac, and Linux, etc.
- It supports a user-friendly GUI, which is interactive and also straightforward.
- It is incredibly extensible to load the performance test in more types of servers.
Another bug tracing tool used in the manual testing is Bugzilla
It is most widely used by more organizations to track the different bugs of the application.
Bugzilla is an open-source tool that helps to customer and the client to keep track of the defects.
Bugzilla is also considered a test management tool because in this, simply link other test case management tools such as ALM, Quality Centre, etc.
Features of Bugzilla
It supports different operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Mac.
With the help of Bugzilla, list a bug in several formats.
User preferences can measure an email notification.
Bugzilla has advancedof searching capabilities.
Mantis is a web-based bug tracing system. ManitsBT stands for Mantis Bug Tracker.
It is used to followa software defects and performed in a PHP programming language.
It is an open-source tool.
Features of Mantis
- With the help of this tool, have full-text search an accessibility.
- Audit trails of the changes made to issues.
- It offers the revision control system integration.
- Revision control of text fields and notes
Another integration testing tool is Tessy, used to perform the integration and unit testing for an embedded software. It also helps us to found the code coverage of the software or an application.
It can simply manage the entire test organization, including business needs, test management, coverage quantity, and traceability.
Tessy contains three primary functions, which are below:
Test Interface Editor (TIE)
Test Data Editor (TDE)
Features of TESSY
- It produced the test report for the test execution results.
- It supports different programming languages such as C and C++.
- Tessy is used to calculate the interface of the function and explains the variable used by that function.t
Manual testing, which includes the explanation of manual testing, the need of manual testing, type of manual testing, manual testing tools, the process of manual testing, and some important benefits and drawbacks of it. , it is a process of where the test engineer require to be very persistent, innovative, and responsive.
In manual testing, the test engineer require to think and perform like end-user interpretation.
In order to implement manual testing, a test engineer require productive skill and imagination. And they need to think of more situations or scenarios to test a particular application.
Even though test nearly all the applications with the help of automation testing at present, still manual testing is need as it is the base of software testing.
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