Puppet Interview Questions and Answers

Puppet Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 24th Oct 2020, Blog, Interview Question

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Puppet is a popular configuration management tool that is widely used by the IT industries. It is possible that your skills may be evaluated for the tool when you appear for the DevOps interview. So, in this blog, we will discuss puppet interview questions and answers for experienced and freshers that are frequently asked by the interviewer. No surprise, the puppet interview questions series would start with tool introduction then it will be little technical in later sections.

1. Why is the puppet important?

Ans:

Puppet develops and increases the social, emotional and communication skills of the children.

2. What are the works and uses of puppets?

Ans:

Puppet defines the software and configuration your system requires and has the ability to maintain an initial setup. Puppet is a powerful configuration management tool to help system administrators and DevOps to work smart, fast, automate the configuration, provisioning, and management of a server.

3. Why is a puppet used by an organization?

Ans:

Puppet is used to fulfill cloud infrastructure needs, data centers and to maintain the growth of phenomenal. It is very flexible to configure with the right machine. Puppet helps an organization to imagine all machine properties and infrastructure.

4. What are the functions of Puppet?

Ans:

Ruby is the base development language of puppet and supports two types of functions are Statements and Rvalue.

There are three types of Inbuilt functions

  1. 1. File function
  2. 2. Include function
  3. 3. Defined function

5. What are Reductive labs?

Ans:

Puppet labs are to target the reAns: framing of the automation problem of the server.

6. How is puppet useful for developers?

Ans:

Puppet is a reliable, fast, easy and automated infrastructure to add more servers and the new version of the software in a single click. You can fully focus on productive work because it is free from repetitive tasks.

7. What is the language of the puppet?

Ans:

Puppet has its language known as eponymous puppet available in open and commercial versions. It uses a declarative, modelAns: based approach for IT automation to define infrastructure as code and configuration with programs.

8. Does puppet have its programming language, why?

Ans:

Yes, because it is very easy and clear to understand quick by developers

9. What puppet will teach you?

Ans:

Puppet will teach you how to write the code to configure an automated server, to use preAns: build and create modules, how to use resources, facts, nodes, classes and manifests, etc.

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10. What are the effects of puppet on children?

Ans:

There are many surprising and amazing effects of puppets such as it encourages and improves the imagination, creativity, motorcycle and emotional health of the children to express inner feelings. The main thing is that you can communicate and give a valuable message to your children funnily and unusually and also to get rid of your child from the shyness of reading, pronouncing and speaking loud in front of everybody.

11. How to install a puppet master?

Ans:

First update your system and install the puppet labsAns:  release repository into Ubuntu. Always install the latest and updated version of the puppet “puppetmasterAns:  passenger” package.

12. What is configuration management?

Ans:

Configurations management handles the changes systematically to confirm the system design and built state. It also maintains the system integrity and accurate historical records of system state for audit purposes and management of the project.

13. How do puppet slaves and masters communicate?

Ans:

First slave sends the request for the master certificate to sign in and then the master approves the request and sends it to the slave and slave certificate too. Now the slave will approve the request. After completing all the formalities, the date is exchanged very securely between two parties.

14. How does the DevOps puppet tool work?

Ans:

Facts details of the operating system, the IP address of the virtual machine or not, is sent to the puppet master by the puppet slave. Then the fact details are checked by the puppet master to decide how the slave machine will configure and wellAns: defined document to describe the state of every resource. The message is shown on the dashboard after completing the configuration.

15. Describe puppet manifests and puppet module?

Ans:

Puppet manifests – Are puppet code and use the. pp extension of filenames. For example, write a manifest in the puppet master to create a file and install apache to puppet slaves that are connected to the puppet master.

Puppet module – It is a unique collection of data and manifests like files, facts, templates with a special directory structure.

16. What are the main sources of the puppet catalog for configuration?

Ans:

  • Agent provided data
  • Puppet manifests
  • External data

17. Is 2.7.6 puppet run on the window and server?

Ans:

Yes, it will run to ensure future compatibility. Puppets can work on servers in an organization because there are a lot of similarities in the operating system.

18. How can we manage the workstation with a puppet?

Ans:

BY using “puppet tool” for managing workstations, desktops, laptops.

19. What is Node?

Ans:

It is a block of puppet code included in matching nodes catalogs which allow assigning configurations to specific nodes.

20. What are facts, name the facts puppet can access?

Ans:

System information is facts which are preAns: set variables to use anywhere in manifest. Factor builtAns: in core facts, custom and external facts.

21. Where are blocks of Puppet code stored?

Ans:

Blocks are known as the classes of puppet code and are stored on modules to use later and can be applied only by a name.

22. Which command puppet applies?

Ans:

  • Puppet apply /etc/puppet labs/code/environments/production/manifests/site.pp

23. Name the two versions of the puppet? Define

Ans:

Open source puppet – It manages the configuration of UnixAns:  like the Microsoft windows system. It is a free version to modify and customize.

Puppet enterprise – Ability to manage all the IT applications, infrastructure and provide a robust based solution for automating anything.

24. What are community tools to support the functions of puppets?

Ans:

  These are Git, Jenkins and DevOps tools to support integration and features in puppet.

25. Name the problem while using puppets?

Ans:

  1. 1. Puppet distortion issue
  2. 2. Blink issue
  3. 3. Wrap issue
  4. 4. Movement issue
  5. 5. Face issue
  6. 6. Walking issue

26. What are the two components of the puppet?

Ans:

  • Puppet language
  • Puppet platform

27. How to check the requests of Certificates from the puppet agent to puppet master?

Ans:

  1. 1. puppet cert list
  2. 2. Puppet cert sign <Hostname of agent>
  3. 3. Puppet cert sign all

28. Where and why we use etckeeper?

Ans:

It is used on a puppet agent.

  • etckeeper commit post is used to define scripts and command after pushing configuration in the configuration file.
  • etckeeper commit pre is used to define scripts and command before pushing configuration in the configuration file.

29. What is runinterval?

Ans:

A request by default is sent to the puppet master after a periodic time by the puppet agent.

30. What does puppet kick allow?

Ans:

It allows triggering puppet agents from puppet masters.

31. What is the orchestration framework and what does it do?

Ans:

It is an MCollective and runs on thousands of servers using writing and plugins.

32. What is this “$operating system” ? How is it set?

Ans:

This is variable and set by factor.

33. What does puppet follow?

Ans:

Client server architecture. Client as “agent” and server as “master”.

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34. What are the challenges handled by configuration by management?

Ans:

  1. 1. Identify the component to be changed when required, wrong identification may replace it by the right component implementation.
  2. 2. After changes all nodes are redone.
  3. 3. The previous version is again implemented if necessary.

35. What are the advantages of a puppet?

Ans:

  • Develops imagination power
  • Verbal expression
  • Voice modulation
  • Confidence
  • Teamwork
  • Dramatic expression
  • Listening skills

36. What is used for separating data from puppet code and why?

Ans:

Hiera. For storing the data in key value pairs.

37. Who approves puppet code and why?

Ans:

Puppet parser and puppet code check the syntax errors.

38. What do we use to change and view the puppet settings?

Ans:

By puppet config.

39. What puppet for automating configuration management?

Ans:

Python.

40. What reduces the time to automation to get started with DevOps?

Ans:

Puppet Bolt.

41. Explain Puppet?

Ans:

A Puppet is a tool for configuration management. Master-slave architecture is used by puppets. Master and slave connect by a coded channel with the help of SSL. It is for configuring, managing servers and deploying.

42. What is a Module in Puppet?

Ans:

In the Puppet module is a group of files, classes, definitions, templates, resources. Re-distribution of the module is handled by the puppet is very useful for compatible code to write generic code. And can be used with simple code changes numerous times.

43. Define Factor?

Ans:

Puppet uses a Facter for managing numerous principles as the occasional variable. It is the same as the “env” variable of Linux and Bash. Overlapping is seen in the middle of facts, stock details and machines’ occasional fluctuation.

44. Name the design of the puppet?

Ans:

Model-driven design, It is very boring to hold and to arrange numerous projects with each other with the help of the director. But by using the latest and advanced tools and technology this procedure becomes more compatible. For making the project layout uncomplicated we use the puppet.

45. Describe MCollective?

Ans:

MCollective is a powerful instrumentation framework and a tool developed by a puppet. It runs on the numerous servers together by the use of existing plugins or written by own. It is developed by a puppet lab for server interpretation.

46. Name the type of organization where the puppet is used?

Ans:

Puppet is more useful for an organization that has a large number of servers. It is used to remove the need to manually handle the servers. But it is less important for the small number of servers.

47. Name the characters used in a class and module name?

Ans:

Lowercase letters, numbers and underscores are the characters allowed in a class and module name. You can separate namespace in a lowercase letter. The variable names such as characters, alphanumeric and underscore and it may be case sensitive.

48. Mention the disadvantages of Puppet?

Ans:

  1. 1. It is difficult to explain Ruby.
  2. 2. You have to use Ruby for expanding Puppet.
  3. 3. quick delivering and development.
  4. 4. Puppet is not worth for small industries.
  5. 5. The features of global communication are not in the puppet.
  6. 6. The global report is not viewed on agreement transferred out by the puppet.

49. What is Puppet Lint?

Ans:

Puppet code is tested by puppet-lint. It is approved Contrary to the puppet language style guide. The code style is proved by puppet-lint. But the syntax is not proved. The command of puppet “puppet parser validate” is used for evaluating syntax.

50. Define the management of configuration in Puppet?

Ans:

To enclose the practices and construction configuration management is used. The transportation and functioning framework is automated by configuration management. It assists in making the base for DevOps to provide the best software. It helps in managing the modification to approve the system design and built state.

51. Define the purpose of RESTful API? And the security of REST API?

Ans:

RESTful API is the medium of interaction in the puppet. Puppet Master and puppet agents interact with each other with the help of the RESTful API. The proceeding is the fundamental URL for connecting RESTful API. We have to hold the documents if the RESTful API is used for external collection.

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52. For what reason do we use the custom function in Puppet?

Ans:

Functions are used to develop custom functions. A custom function is useful for extending the analysis capacity of the puppet. The ability of the puppets manifests files and modules is stretching out and improving with the help of Custom function.

53. What is the use of Facter command and its importance?

Ans:

To register each change of various occasions and the connected principal the command of Facter is used. The group of facts approaches creative thinking like core facts. The facts of custom to the group can be attached. Facter and facts are necessary because we can use them in the code at any time.

54. Define the Facts of puppet?

Ans:

For the classification when the representative appeals to a manager. Then first the representative assembles each detail of the record on my own as the combination of key value. With the help of Facter, all the details of the representative are collected.

55. What are puppet internals?

Ans:

Puppet internals tells the way of interaction between the master and representative by the host confirmed HTTP.

  • Interaction of master and representative HTTP – The manager and representative connects each other commonly validates HTTP for the proof of the clients.
  • Collection of a catalog – The file is used by the representative at the time of constructing a node is known as the catalog. Catalog defines every asset condition and in the management as well as identifies the ordered details.

56. How to trace the activity of the puppet with a report?

Ans:

A report is for activities and the framework is generated by the puppet. At the time of puppet run, it appeals for classification. For creating the details we take the help of report processors.

  1. 1. By sending report
  2. 2. Remark about a report
  3. 3. The pattern of the report
  4. 4. By custom report writing

57. Define Virtual resources? Its uses.

Ans:

  Virtual resources define the condition you want for the means without applying that condition. After the announcement, it is recognized many times.

Uses

  • Resources are managed at the time of numerous cross-class conditions together.
  • An overlapping group of means contains the number of classes.
  • The management of means depends on one condition to get together.

58. How to make Puppet more powerful?

Ans:

For example – Jira is used to check the changes and requests. A request is handled by the inner process. To hold the puppet code we use Git and puppets code manager app. To run the modification of puppet by regular merged pipeline in Jenkins with the beaker testing framework.

59. Name the catalog of the puppet? Why do we use sources?

Ans:

A downloaded document from the puppet master which is used by puppet agent at the time of configuring a node. We have to manage every resource of the chosen state by the catalog.

  1. 1. Sources are used by puppet to compile a catalog
  2. 2. Outside data
  3. 3. Display of Puppet
  4. 4. Data is given by the agent

60. What are the layers of Puppet?

Ans:

The layer of abstraction – It permits the manager to apply the arrangements on various objectives such as Linus, Windows, OS X, and Unix.

The language of configuration – It defines the way of how to appear as the moderator and services.

61. Name the blocks and resources of Puppet?

Ans:

Blocks of Puppet – The resilience for combining reports are given by the puppet. To make use of Puppet APIs with the tool of the third party. Classes, Resources. Manifest, Modules

Resources of Puppet – The resources of the puppet are files, users, services, packages, processes. Puppet resources assist to achieve every function on the Puppet agent.

62. Define the classes of Puppet?

Ans:

A group of puppet capabilities packed up in a single unit is called puppet classes. The classes are for the framework to use again in order. Classes are announced a single time with a single name and should be different.

63. What is the use of Puppet for DevOps?

Ans:

  1. 1. The industry of Puppet is very broad to handle a DevOps environment and cloud.
  2. 2. The projects of system management are stored as modules and manifests. We can use it again for generating pre-built servers.
  3. 3. Puppet is for a regular delivery model to free the software cycle.

64. What is the use of HTTPS?

Ans:

To interact with puppet agent nodes and puppet masters for the confirmation of the client. An HTTP attachment is given by the puppet master having numerous endpoints. HTTPS requests for single endpoints are made by the agent at the time of appealing or accepting something. With the help of the master’s HTTP API, the agent naturally appeals to certificates.

65. Where did Puppet server run?

Ans:

Puppet server runs on a Java virtual machine. It gives services like the application of the classic puppet master. It is done in numerous performers with the help of running the current master code.

66. How to handle Puppet’s built-in certificate authority?

Ans:

With the help of puppet cert. For signing, we can use it and for canceling the agent certificates. Like the application of puppet master, it runs on a similar server.

67. How to handle modules from the Puppet Forge?

Ans:

With the help of the puppet module command gives an attachment. The attachment is the same as the numerous packages principles like apt-get, yum, gem. Puppet command helps us to explore handling modules and to install.

68. Where do we find a steady set of test nodes?

Ans:

It is found in permanent test environments. And all modification is done before getting associated into the code of presentation. The test nodes are considered a minor version of the entire framework of the presentation.

69. How to recognize the error in the line or invalid?

Ans:

With the help of a puppet parser. To examine the error into the editor you can combine the syntax. To run the checking of error Vim has built-in code in the collection of processes. And one can immediately prove the code and climb the unit of code with the help of syntax error.

70. Explain the DevOps puppet tool?

Ans:

For delivering the best software DevOps is used. It is a developmental application. By placing development, staging, and deployment DevOps construct the best software fast.

71. Tell the method of interaction of slaves and master in puppets?

Ans:

  1. 1. First, an appeal is mailed for the master’s approval by the slave.
  2. 2. Then the request is accepted by the master
  3. 3. Now it is mailed to the worker and worker proof.
  4. 4. The appeal is requested by the worker
  5. 5. Finally, all data is interchanged in a very protected method for connecting two parties after finishing the whole procedure.

72. Explain Node in Puppet?

Ans:

 Node is known as a slab of Puppet Node contained in matching nodes catalogs. Giving a particular arrangement to a particular node is permitted by it. Then keep node explanation In the center of a manifest is a single site.pp file or numerous folder holding directory. A single node is necessary when manifest holds one node explanation. When node explanation is not provided the selection for a node is failed.

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73. Name the benefits of puppet DevOps tools?

Ans:

For describing, the framework as a code is permitted by the puppet. ICA is necessary for DevOps applications like managing version, companion evaluation, automatic testing and deployment, and ongoing transportation.

With the help of the deployment, the puppet gives a remarkable saving of time. It describes the layout for the host.

74. Explain writing custom functions?

Ans:

Functions run on the puppet master. Function communicates agent to give the details as data. The traditional functions are held by the puppet master for restarting the puppet master. The function performs on the server to show the file on the server. The function R-value gives back the value and statement function does not give back anything.

75. What the ssldir directory contains in Puppet?

Ans:

The ssldir directory contains Puppet certificates, private keys, certificate signing requests (CSRs), and other cryptographic documents.

The ssldir directory on Agent nodes and Puppet masters contain a private key (private_keys/<certname>.pem), a public key (public_keys/<certname.pem>), a signed certificate (certs/<certname>.pem), a copy of the CA certificate (certs/ca.pem), and a copy of the certificate revocation list (CRL) (crl.pem).

76. What is the cache directory (vardir) in Puppet?

Ans:

Puppet’s cache directory, sometimes called vardir, contains dynamic or growing data that Puppet creates in the course of its normal operations. Some of this data can be mined for interesting analysis, or to integrate other tools with Puppet. Other parts are just infrastructure and can be ignored.

77. Where the vardir can be stored in Puppet?

Ans:

  • Location of the vardir directory Puppet Server’s cache directory defaults to /opt/puppetlabs/server/data/puppetserver.
  • The cache directory for Puppet agent and Puppet apply can be found at one of the following locations:

*nix Systems: /var/opt/puppetlabs/puppet/cache non-root users: ~/.puppetlabs/opt/puppet/cacheWindows: %PROGRAMDATA%\PuppetLabs\puppet\cache (usually C:\ProgramData\PuppetLabs\puppet\cache)

78. What are Environments in Puppet?

Ans:

Environments are isolated groups of Puppet agent nodes.

A Puppet master serves each environment with its own main manifest and module path. This lets you use different versions of the same modules for different groups of nodes, which is useful for testing changes to your Puppet code before implementing them on production machines.

79. What are the types of environments?

Ans:

The main uses for environments fall into three categories:

  1. 1. Permanent test environments
  2. 2. Temporary test environments
  3. 3. Divided infrastructure

80. What is Puppet?

Ans:

Puppet is a configuration Tool which is used to automate administration tasks.Puppet Agent(Client) sends requests to Puppet Master (Server) and Puppet Master Push Configuration on Agent.

81. What is Manifests?

Ans:

Manifests, in Puppet, are the files in which the client configuration is specified.

82. What is a Module and How is it different from a Manifest?

Ans:

Whatever the manifests we defined in modules, can call or include into other manifests. Which makes easier management of Manifests.It helps you to push specific manifests on specific Nodes or Agents.

83. Command to check requests of Certificates?

Ans:

  • puppetca –list (2.6)
  • puppet ca list (3.0)

84. Command to assign Requested Certificates

Ans:

  • puppetca  –sign hostname-of-agent (2.6)
  • puppet ca  sign hostname-of-agent (3.0)

85. Where Puppet Master Stores Certificates

Ans:

/var/lib/puppet/ssl/ca/signed

86. What is Facter?

Ans:

Sometimes you need to write manifests on conditional expressions based on agent specific data which is available through Facter. Facter provides information like Kernel version,Dist release, IP Address, CPU info and etc.You can defined your facter also.

87. What is Puppet Kick?

Ans:

By default Puppet Agent requests a Puppet Master after a periodic time which is known as “runinterval”. Puppet Kick is a utility which allows you to trigger Puppet Agent from Puppet Master.

88. What is MCollective?

Ans:

MCollective is a powerful orchestration framework. Run actions on thousands of servers simultaneously, using existing plugins or writing your own.

89. Describe the most significant gain you made from automating a process through Puppet?

Ans:

“I automated the configuration and deployment of Linux and Windows machines using Puppet. In addition to shortening the processing time from one week to 10 minutes, I used the roles and profiles paradigm and documented the purpose of each module in README to ensure that others could update the module using Git. The modules I wrote are still being used, but they’ve been improved by my teammates and members of the community.”

90. Tell me about a time when you used collaboration and Puppet to help resolve a conflict within a team?

Ans:

The development team wanted root access on test machines managed by Puppet in order to make specific configuration changes. We responded by meeting with them weekly to agree on a process for developers to communicate configuration changes and to empower them to make many of the changes they needed. Through our joint efforts, we came up with a way for the developers to change specific configuration values themselves via data abstracted through Hiera. In fact, we even taught one of the developers how to write Puppet code in collaboration with us.”

91. Which open source or community tools do you use to make Puppet more powerful?

Ans:

Changes and requests are ticketed through Jira and we manage requests through an internal process. Then, we use Git and Puppet’s Code Manager app to manage Puppet code in accordance with best practices. Additionally, we run all of our Puppet changes through our continuous integration pipeline in Jenkins using the beaker testing framework.”

92. What are Catalogs in Puppet?

Ans:

A catalog is a document that describes the desired system state for one specific computer. It lists all of the resources that need to be managed, as well as any dependencies between those resources.

Puppet configures systems in two stages:

  • Compile a catalog
  • Apply the catalog

93. Explain the agent/master architecture in Puppet?

Ans:

When set up as an agent/master architecture, a Puppet master server controls the configuration information, and each managed agent node requests its own configuration catalog from the master.

In this architecture, managed nodes run the Puppet agent application, usually as a background service. One or more servers run the Puppet master application, Puppet Server.

94. How can Puppet agent nodes and Puppet masters communicate with each other?

Ans:

  1. 1. Puppet agent nodes and Puppet masters communicate by HTTPS with client verification.
  2. 2. The Puppet master provides an HTTP interface, with various endpoints available. When requesting or submitting anything to the master, the agent makes an HTTPS request to one of those endpoints.
  3. 3. Client-verified HTTPS means each master or agent must have an identifying SSL certificate. They each examine their counterpart’s certificate to decide whether to allow an exchange of information.
  4. 4. Puppet includes a built-in certificate authority for managing certificates.
  5. 5. Agents can automatically request certificates through the master’s HTTP API. You can use the puppet cert command to inspect requests and sign new certificates. And agents can then download the signed certificates.

95. Can you explain stand-alone architecture in Puppet?

Ans:

Puppet can run in a stand-alone architecture, where each managed node has its own complete copy of your configuration info and compiles its own catalog.

In this architecture, managed nodes run the Puppet apply application, usually as a scheduled task or cron job. You can also run it on demand for initial configuration of a server or for smaller configuration tasks.

Like the Puppet master application, Puppet needs access to several sources of configuration data, which it uses to compile a catalog for the node it is managing.

96. What is Puppet codedir?

Ans:

Puppet’s codedir is the main directory for Puppet code and data. It contains environments (which contain your manifests and modules), a global modules directory for all environments, and your Hiera data.

97. Where do you find codedir in Puppet?

Ans:

Puppet’s codedir can be found at one of the following locations:

*nix Systems: /etc/puppetlabs/codeWindows: %PROGRAMDATA%\PuppetLabs\code (usually C:\ProgramData\PuppetLabs\code)non-root users: ~/.puppetlabs/etc/code

98. In Puppet where codedir is configured?

Ans:

The location of the codedir can be configured in puppet.conf with the codedir setting, but note that Puppet Server doesn’t use that setting; it has its own jruby-puppet.master-code-dir setting in puppetserver.conf. If you’re using a non-default codedir, you must change both settings.

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