Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 14th Oct 2020, Blog, Interview Question

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Manual testing is a testing process that is carried out manually in order to find defects without the usage of tools or automation scripting. A test plan document is prepared that acts as a guide to the testing process in order to have the complete test coverage.

1. What do you understand by software testing?

Ans:

Software testing is a validation process which confirms that a system works as per the business requirements. It qualifies a system on various aspects such as usability, accuracy, completeness, efficiency, etc. ANSI/IEEE 1059 is the global standard that defines the basic principles of testing.

2. When should you stop the testing process?

Ans:

The testing activity ends when the testing team completes the following milestones.

Test case execution- The successful completion of a full test cycle after the final bug fix marks the end of the testing phase.

Testing deadline- The end date of the validation stage also declares the closure of the validation if no critical or high-priority defects remain in the system.

Code Coverage(CC) ratio- It is the amount of code concealed via automated tests. If the team achieves the intended level of code coverage (CC) ratio, then it can choose to end the validation.

Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) rate- Mean time between failure (MTBF) refers to the average amount of time that a device or product functions before failing. This unit of measurement includes only operational time between failures and does not include repair times, assuming the item is repaired and begins functioning again. MTBF figures are often used to project how likely a single unit is to fail within a certain period of time

3. What do verification and validation mean in software testing?

Ans:

In software testing, verification is a process to confirm that product development is taking place as per the specifications and using the standard development procedures. The process comprises the following activities:

  • Inspections
  • Reviews
  • Walk-throughs
  • Demos

Validation is a means to confirm that the developed product doesn’t have any bugs and is working as expected. It comprises the following activities:

  1. 1. Functional testing
  2. 2. Non-functional testing

4. What is static testing? When does it start and what does it cover?

Ans:

Static Testing involves in reviewing the documents to identify the defects in the early stages of SDLC.

Static testing is a white-box testing technique that directs developers to verify their code with the help of a checklist to find errors in it. Developers can start the static testing without actually finalizing the application or program. Static testing is more cost-effective than dynamic testing as it covers more areas than dynamic testing in a shorter time.

5. Define Black-box testing.

Ans:

It is a standard software testing approach that requires testers to assess the functionality of the software as per the business requirements. The software is treated as a black box and validated as per the end user’s point of view.

6. What is a test plan and what does it include?

Ans:

A test plan stores all possible testing activities to ensure a quality product. It gathers data from the product description, requirement, and use case documents.

The test plan document includes the following:

  1. 1. Testing objectives
  2. 2. Test scope
  3. 3. Testing the frame
  4. 4. Environment
  5. 5. Reason for testing
  6. 6. Criteria for entrance and exit
  7. 7. Deliverables
  8. 8. Risk factors

7. What is meant by test coverage?

Ans:

Test coverage is a quality metric to represent the amount (in percentage) of testing completed for a product. It is relevant for both functional and non-functional testing activities. This metric is used to add missing test cases.

8. Is it possible to achieve 100% testing coverage? How would you ensure it?

Ans:

It’s considered not possible to perform 100% testing of any product. But you can follow the below steps to come closer.

  • Set a hard limit on the following factors:
    • Percentage of test cases passed
    • Number of bugs found
  • Set a red flag if:
    • Test budget is depleted
    • Deadlines are breached
  • Set a green flag if:
    • The entire functionality gets covered in test cases
    • All critical and major bugs must have a ‘CLOSED’ status

9. What are unit testing and integration testing?

Ans:

Unit testing has many names such as module testing or component testing.

Many times, it is the developers who test individual units or modules to check if they are working correctly. It is done by the developers in the development environment.

Whereas, integration testing validates how well two or more units of software interact with each other.

There are three ways to validate integration:

  1. 1. Big Bang approach
  2. 2. Top-down approach
  3. 3. Bottom-up approach

10. Can we do system testing at any stage?

Ans:

No. System testing should start only if all modules are in place and they work correctly. However, it should be performed before UAT (user acceptance testing).

11. Mention the different types of software testing.

Ans:

Various testing types used by manual testers are as follows:

  1. 1. Unit testing
  2. 2. Integration testing
  3. 3. Regression testing
  4. 4. Shakeout testing
  5. 5. Smoke testing
  6. 6. Functional testing
  7. 7. Performance testing
    • Load testing
    • Stress testing
    • Endurance testing
  8. 8. White-box and Black-box testing
  9. 9. Alpha and Beta testing
  10. 10. System testing

12. What is the difference between a test driver and a test stub?

Ans:

The test driver is a section of code that calls a software component under test. It is useful in testing that follows the bottom-up approach.

The test stub is a dummy program that integrates with an application to complete its functionality. It is relevant for testing that uses the top-down approach.

For example:

Let’s assume a scenario where we have to test the interface between Modules A and B. We have developed only Module A. Here, we can test Module A if we have the real Module B or a dummy module for it. In this case, we call Module B as the test stub.

Now, Module B can’t send or receive data directly from Module A. In such a scenario, we’ve to move data from one module to another using some external features called test drivers.

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13. What is agile testing and why is it important?

Ans:

Agile testing is a software testing process that evaluates software from the customers’ point of view. It is favorable as it does not require the development team to complete coding for starting QA. Instead, both coding and testing go hand in hand. However, it may require continuous customer interaction.

14. What do you know about data flow testing?

Ans:

It is one of the white-box testing techniques.

Data flow testing emphasizes designing test cases that cover control flow paths around variable definitions and their uses in the modules. It expects test cases to have the following attributes:

  1. 1. The input to the module
  2. 2. The control flow path for testing
  3. 3. A pair of an appropriate variable definition and its use
  4. 4. The expected outcome of the test case

15. What is the purpose of the end-to-end testing?

Ans:

End-to-end testing is a testing strategy to execute tests that cover every possible flow of an application from its start to finish. The objective of performing end-to-end tests is to discover software dependencies and to assert that the correct input is getting passed between various software modules and sub-systems.

16. The probability that a server-class application hosted on the cloud is up and running for six long months without crashing is 99.99 percent. To analyze this type of a scenario, what test will you perform?

Ans:

Reliability testing

17. What will you do when a bug turns up during testing?

Ans:

When a bug occurs, we can follow the below steps.

  • We can run more tests to make sure that the problem has a clear description.
  • We can also run a few more tests to ensure that the same problem doesn’t exist with different inputs.
  • Once we are certain of the full scope of the bug, we can add details and report it.

18. Why is it impossible to test a program thoroughly?

Ans:

Here are the two principal reasons that make it impossible to test a program entirely.

Software specifications can be subjective and can lead to different interpretations.

A software program may require too many inputs, outputs, and path combinations.

19. How do you test a product if the requirements are yet to be freezed?

Ans:

If the required specifications are not available for a product, then a test plan can be created based on the assumptions made about the product. But we should get all assumptions well-documented in the test plan.

20. If a product is in the production stage and one of its modules gets updated, then is it necessary to ret

Ans:

It is suggested to perform a regression testing and run tests for all the other modules as well. Finally, the QA should also carry out a system testing.

21. How will you overcome the challenges faced due to the unavailability of proper documentation for testing?

Ans:

If the standard documents like System Requirement Specification or Feature Description Document are not available, then QAs may have to rely on the following references, if available.

  1. 1. Screenshots
  2. 2. A previous version of the application
  3. 3. Wireframes

Another reliable way is to have discussions with the developer and the business analyst. It helps in solving the doubts, and it opens a channel for bringing clarity on the requirements. Also, the emails exchanged could be useful as a testing reference.

Smoke testing is yet another option that would help verify the main functionality of the application. It would reveal some very basic bugs in the application. If none of these work, then we can just test the application from our previous experiences.

22. Is there any difference between retesting and regression testing?

Ans:

Possible differences between retesting and regression testing are as follows:

We perform retesting to verify the defect fixes. But, the regression testing assures that the bug fix does not break other parts of the application.

Regression test cases verify the functionality of some or all modules.

Regression testing ensures the re-execution of passed test cases. Whereas, retesting involves the execution of test cases that are in a failed state.

Retesting has a higher priority over regression. But in some cases, both get executed in parallel.

23. As per your understanding, list down the key challenges of software testing.

Ans:

Following are some of the key challenges of software testing:

  1. 1. The lack of availability of standard documents to understand the application
  2. 2. Lack of skilled testers
  3. 3. Understanding the requirements: Testers require good listening and understanding capabilities to be able to communicate with the customers the application requirements.
  4. 4. The decision-making ability to analyze when to stop testing
  5. 5. Ability to work under time constraints
  6. 6. Ability to decide which tests to execute first
  7. 7. Testing the entire application using an optimized number of test cases

24. What are the different types of functional testing?

Ans:

Functional testing covers the following types of validation techniques:

  • Unit testing
  • Smoke testing
  • UAT
  • Sanity testing
  • Interface testing
  • Integration testing
  • System testing
  • Regression testing

25. What are functional test cases and non-functional test cases?

Ans:

Functional testing: It is testing the ‘functionality’ of a software or an application under test. It tests the behavior of the software under test. Based on the requirement of the client, a document called a software specification or requirement specification is used as a guide to test the application.

Non-functional testing: In software terms, when an application works as per the user’s expectation, smoothly and efficiently under any condition, then it is stated as a reliable application. Based on quality, it is very critical to test these parameters. This type of testing is called non-functional testing.

26. What do you understand by STLC?

Ans:

Software testing life cycle (STLC) proposes the test execution in a planned and systematic manner. In the STLC model, many activities occur to improve the quality of the product.

The STLC model lays down the following steps:

  1. 1. Requirement Analysis
  2. 2. Test Planning
  3. 3. Test Case Development
  4. 4. Environment Setup
  5. 5. Test Execution
  6. 6. Test Cycle Closure

27. In software testing, what does a fault mean?

Ans:

Fault is a condition that makes the software fail to execute while performing the considered function.

28. Difference between Bug, Defect, and Error.

Ans:

A slip in coding is indicated as an error. The error spotted by a manual tester becomes a defect. The defect which the development team admits is known as a bug. If a built code misses on the requirements, then it is a functional failure.

29. How do severity and priority relate to each other?

Ans:

Severity: It represents the gravity/depth of a bug. It describes the application point of view.

Priority: It specifies which bug should get fixed first. It defines the user’s point of view.

30. List the different types of severity.

Ans:

The criticality of a bug can be low, medium, or high depending on the context.

  1. 1. User interface defects – Low
  2. 2. Boundary related defects – Medium
  3. 3. Error handling defects – Medium
  4. 4. Calculation defects – High
  5. 5. Misinterpreted data – High
  6. 6. Hardware failures – High
  7. 7. Compatibility issues – High
  8. 8. Control flow defects – High
  9. 9. Load conditions – High

31. What do you mean by defect detection percentage in software testing?

Ans:

Defect detection percentage (DDP) is a type of testing metric. It indicates the effectiveness of a testing process by measuring the ratio of defects discovered before the release and reported after the release by customers.

For example, let’s say, the QA has detected 70 defects during the testing cycle and the customer reported 20 more after the release. Then, DDP would be: 70/(70 + 20) = 72.1%

32. What does defect removal efficiency mean in software testing?

Ans:

Defect removal efficiency (DRE) is one of the testing metrics. It is an indicator of the efficiency of the development team to fix issues before the release.

It gets measured as the ratio of defects fixed to total the number of issues discovered.

For example, let’s say, there were 75 defects discovered during the test cycle while 62 of them got fixed by the development team at the time of measurement. The DRE would be 62/75 = 82.6%

33. What is the average age of a defect in software testing?

Ans:

Defect age is the time elapsed between the day the tester discovered a defect and the day the developer got it fixed.

While estimating the age of a defect, consider the following points:

  • The day of birth of a defect is the day it got assigned and accepted by the development team.
  • The issues which got dropped are out of the scope.
  • Age can be both in hours or days.
  • The end time is the day the defect got verified and closed, not just the day it got fixed by the development team.

34. How do you perform automated testing in your environment?

Ans:

Automation testing is a process of executing tests automatically. It reduces the human intervention to a great extent. We use different test automation tools like QTP, Selenium, and WinRunner. Testing tools help in speeding up the testing tasks. These tools allow you to create test scripts to verify the application automatically and also to generate the test reports.

35. Is there any difference between quality assurance, quality control, and software testing. If so, what is it?

Ans:

Quality Assurance (QA) refers to the planned and systematic way of monitoring the quality of the process which is followed to produce a quality product. QA tracks the test reports and modifies the process to meet the expectation.

Quality Control (QC) is relevant to the quality of the product. QC not only finds the defects but suggests improvements too. Thus, a process that is set by QA is implemented by QC. QC is the responsibility of the testing team.

Software testing is the process of ensuring that the product which is developed by developers meets the users’ requirements. The aim of performing testing is to find bugs and make sure that they get fixed. Thus, it helps to maintain the quality of the product to be delivered to the customer.

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36. Tell me about some of the essential qualities an experienced QA or Test Lead must possess.

Ans:

QA or Test Lead should have the following qualities:

  1. 1. Well-versed in software testing processes
  2. 2. Ability to accelerate teamwork to increase productivity
  3. 3. Improve coordination between QA and Dev engineers
  4. 4. Provide ideas to refine QA processes
  5. 5. Skill to conduct RCA meetings and draw conclusions
  6. 6. Excellent written and interpersonal communication skills
  7. 7. Ability to learn fast and to groom the team members

37. What is a Silk Test and why should you use it?

Ans:

Here are some facts about the Silk Test tool:

Skill tool is developed for performing regression and functionality testing of an application.

It is used when we are testing Window-based, Java, web, and the traditional client/server applications.

Silk Test helps in preparing the test plan and managing it to provide direct accessing of the database and validation of the field.

38. On the basis of which factors you would consider choosing automated testing over manual testing?

Ans:

Choosing automated testing over manual testing depends on the following factors:

  • Tests require periodic execution.
  • Tests include repetitive steps.
  • Tests execute in a standard runtime environment.
  • Automation is expected to take less time.
  • Automation is increasing reusability.
  • Automation reports are available for every execution.
  • Small releases like service packs include a minor bug fix. In such cases, executing the regression test is sufficient for validation.

39. Tell me the key elements to consider while writing a bug report

Ans:

An ideal bug report should consist of the following key points:

Defect description: A short description of the bug

Steps to reproduce: They include the detailed test steps to emulate the issue. They also provide the test data and the time when the error has occurred

Environment: Add any system settings that could help in reproducing the issue

Module/section of the application in which the error has occurred

Responsible QA: This person is a point of contact in case you want to follow-up regarding this issue

Most important key elements are a Unique ID, Screenshots and Severity.

40. Is there any difference between bug leakage and bug release?

Ans:

Bug leakage: Bug leakage is something, when the bug is discovered by the end user/customer and missed by the testing team to detect while testing the software. It is a defect that exists in the application and not detected by the tester, which is eventually found by the customer/end user.

Bug release: A bug release is when a particular version of the software is released with a set of known bug(s). These bugs are usually of low severity/priority. It is done when a software company can afford the existence of bugs in the released software but not the time/cost for fixing it in that particular version.

41. What is the difference between performance testing and monkey testing?

Ans:

Performance testing checks the speed, scalability, and/or stability characteristics of a system. Performance is identified with achieving response time, throughput, and resource-utilization levels that meet the performance objectives for a project or a product.

Monkey testing is a technique in software testing where the user tests the application by providing random inputs, checking the behavior of the application (or trying to crash the application).

42. What is exploratory testing?

Ans:

Exploratory testing is an approach to software testing, wherein testers learn simultaneously about the test design and test execution. In other words, it is a hands-on approach where testers are involved more in the test execution part than in planning.

Usually, this process will be carried out by domain experts. They perform testing just by exploring the functionalities of the application without having the knowledge of the requirements.

43. What is meant by system testing?

Ans:

System testing is a black-box testing technique, used on a complete integrated system, where it will test the system compliance as per the requirement.

44. What are the benefits of test reports?

Ans:

Test reports will help us find the current status of a project and its quality. This can help stakeholders and customers take necessary actions. The complete documentation of test reports will help analyze different phases of the project.

45. What is meant by latent defect?

Ans:

A latent defect is a hidden defect in an application/software, which cannot be identified by a user. However, this will not cause any failure to the application because the conditions will never be met.

46. What are the best practices for writing test cases?

Ans:

  1. 1. Write test cases with end-users perspective
  2. 2. Write test steps in a simple way that anyone can follow them easily
  3. 3. Make the test cases reusable
  4. 4. Set the priority
  5. 5. Provide a test case description, test data, expected result, precondition, postcondition.
  6. 6. Write invalid test cases along with valid test cases
  7. 7. Follow proper naming conventions
  8. 8. Review the test cases regularly and update them if necessary

47. What is configuration management?

Ans:

Configuration management (CM) is a process of systems engineering to maintain system resources, computer systems, servers, software, and product’s performance in a consistent state. It helps to record all the changes made in the system and ensures that the system performs as expected even though changes are made over time.

48. Name some popular configuration management tools?

Ans:

Some of the popular configuration management tools are Ansible, Chef, Puppet, Terraform, Saltstack, etc.

49. What if the software is so buggy it can’t really be tested at all?

Ans:

If the software is so buggy, the first thing we need to do is to report the bugs and categories them based on Severity. If the bugs are critical bugs then it severely affects schedules and indicates deeper problems in the software development process. So you need to let the manager know about the bugs with proper documentation as evidence.

50. What are Quality Assurance and Quality Control?

Ans:

Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance involves in process-oriented activities. It ensures the prevention of defects in the process used to make Software Applications. So the defects don’t arise when the Software Application is being developed.

Quality Control: Quality Control involves in product-oriented activities. It executes the program or code to identify the defects in the Software Application.

51. What is Verification in software testing?

Ans:

Verification is the process, to ensure that whether we are building the product right i.e., to verify the requirements which we have and to verify whether we are developing the product accordingly or not. Activities involved here are Inspections, Reviews, Walk-throughs

52. What is Validation in software testing?

Ans:

Validation is the process, whether we are building the right product i.e., to validate the product which we have developed is right or not. Activities involved in this is Testing the software application.

53. What is Usability Testing?

Ans:

To verify whether the application is user-friendly or not and was comfortably used by an end user or not. The main focus in this testing is to check whether the end user can understand and operate the application easily or not. An application should be self-exploratory and must not require training to operate it.

54. What is Dynamic Testing?

Ans:

Dynamic testing involves in the execution of code. It validates the output with the expected outcome.

55. What is White Box Testing?

Ans:

White Box Testing is also called as Glass Box, Clear Box, and Structural Testing. It is based on applications internal code structure. In white-box testing, an internal perspective of the system, as well as programming skills, are used to design test cases. This testing usually was done at the unit level.

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56. Mention the various types of white-box testing techniques.

Ans:

Various white-box testing techniques are:

  • Statement Coverage
  • Decision Coverage
  • Condition Coverage
  • Multiple Condition Coverage

57. What is Black Box Testing?

Ans:

Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which testers evaluate the functionality of the software under test without looking at the internal code structure. This can be applied to every level of software testing such as Unit, Integration, System and Acceptance Testing.

58. What is Grey Box Testing?

Ans:

Grey box is the combination of both White Box and Black Box Testing. The tester who works on this type of testing needs to have access to design documents. This helps to create better test cases in this process.

59. What is Positive and Negative Testing?

Ans:

Positive Testing: It is to determine what system supposed to do. It helps to check whether the application is justifying the requirements or not.

Negative Testing: It is to determine what system not supposed to do. It helps to find the defects from the software.

60. What is Test Strategy?

Ans:

Test Strategy is a high-level document (static document) and usually developed by project manager. It is a document which captures the approach on how we go about testing the product and achieve the goals. It is normally derived from the Business Requirement Specification (BRS). Documents like Test Plan are prepared by keeping this document as a base.

61. What is Test Plan and contents available in a Test Plan?

Ans:

Test plan document is a document which contains the plan for all the testing activities to be done to deliver a quality product. Test Plan document is derived from the Product Description, SRS, or Use Case documents for all future activities of the project. It is usually prepared by the Test Lead or Test Manager.

  1. 1. Test plan identifier
  2. 2. References
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Test items (functions)
  5. 5. Software risk issues
  6. 6. Features to be tested
  7. 7. Features not to be tested
  8. 8. Approach
  9. 9. Items pass/fail criteria
  10. 10. Suspension criteria and resolution requirements
  11. 11. Test deliverables
  12. 12. Remaining test tasks
  13. 13. Environmental needs
  14. 14. Staff and training needs
  15. 15. Responsibility
  16. 16. Schedule
  17. 17. Plan risks and contingencies
  18. 18. Approvals
  19. 19. Glossaries

62. What is Test Suite?

Ans:

Test Suite is a collection of test cases. The test cases which are intended to test an application.

63. What is Test Scenario?

Ans:

Test Scenario gives the idea of what we have to test. Test Scenario is like a high-level test case.

64. What is Test Case?

Ans:

Test cases are the set of positive and negative executable steps of a test scenario which has a set of pre-conditions, test data, expected result, post-conditions and actual results.

65. What is Test Bed?

Ans:

An environment configured for testing. Test bed consists of hardware, software, network configuration, an application under test, other related software.

66. What is Test Environment?

Ans:

Test Environment is the combination of hardware and software on which Test Team performs testing.

Example:

  1. 1. Application Type: Web Application
  2. 2. OS: Windows
  3. 3. Web Server: IIS
  4. 4. Web Page Design: Dot Net
  5. 5. Client Side Validation: JavaScript
  6. 6. Server Side Scripting: ASP Dot Net
  7. 7. Database: MS SQL Server
  8. 8. Browser: IE/FireFox/Chrome

67. What is Test Data?

Ans:

Test data is the data that is used by the testers to run the test cases. Whilst running the test cases, testers need to enter some input data. To do so, testers prepare test data. It can be prepared manually and also by using tools.

For example, To test a basic login functionality having a user id, password fields. We need to enter some data in the user id and password fields. So we need to collect some test data.

68. What is Test Harness?

Ans:

A test harness is the collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions which involves monitoring the output with the expected output.

It contains the Test Execution Engine & Test Script Repository

69. What is Test Closure?

Ans:

Test Closure is the note prepared before test team formally completes the testing process. This note contains the total no. of test cases, total no. of test cases executed, total no. of defects found, total no. of defects fixed, total no. of bugs not fixed, total no of bugs rejected etc.,

70. What are the tasks of Test Closure activities in Software Testing?

Ans:

Test Closure activities fall into four major groups.

Test Completion Check: To ensure all tests should be either run or deliberately skipped and all known defects should be either fixed, deferred for a future release or accepted as a permanent restriction.

Test Artifacts handover: Tests and test environments should be handed over to those responsible for maintenance testing. Known defects accepted or deferred should be documented and communicated to those who will use and support the use of the system.

Lessons learned: Analyzing lessons learned to determine changes needed for future releases and projects. In retrospective meetings, plans are established to ensure that good practices can be repeated and poor practices are not repeated.

Archiving results, logs, reports, and other documents and work products in the CMS (configuration management system).

71. What is Compatibility Testing?

Ans:

It is to deploy and check whether the application is working as expected in a different combination of environmental components.

72. What is Code coverage?

Ans:

Code coverage is different from Test coverage. Code coverage is about unit testing practices that must target all areas of the code at least once. It is usually done by developers or unit testers.

73. List out Test Deliverables?

Ans:

  1. 1. Test Strategy
  2. 2. Test Plan
  3. 3. Effort Estimation Report
  4. 4. Test Scenarios
  5. 5. Test Cases/Scripts
  6. 6. Test Data
  7. 7. Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM)
  8. 8. Defect Report/Bug Report
  9. 9. Test Execution Report
  10. 10. Graphs and Metrics
  11. 11. Test summary report
  12. 12. Test incident report
  13. 13. Test closure report
  14. 14. Release Note
  15. 15. Installation/configuration guide
  16. 16. User guide
  17. 17. Test status report
  18. 18. Weekly status report (Project manager to client)

74. What is Risk Based Testing?

Ans:

Identify the modules or functionalities which are most likely cause failures and then testing those functionalities.

75. What is Formal Testing?

Ans:

It is a process where the testers test the application by having pre-planned procedures and proper documentation.

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76. What is System Testing?

Ans:

Testing the fully integrated application to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirements is called System Testing AKA End to End testing. Verifying the completed system to ensure that the application works as intended or not.

77. What is Big Bang Approach?

Ans:

Combining all the modules once and verifying the functionality after completion of individual module testing.

Top down and bottom up are carried out by using dummy modules known as Stubs and Drivers. These Stubs and Drivers are used to stand-in for missing components to simulate data communication between modules.

78. What is Top-Down Approach?

Ans:

Testing takes place from top to bottom. High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules and finally integrating the low-level modules to a high level to ensure the system is working as intended. Stubs are used as a temporary module if a module is not ready for integration testing.

79. What is Bottom-Up Approach?

Ans:

It is a reciprocate of the Top-Down Approach. Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules and finally integrating the high-level modules to a low level to ensure the system is working as intended. Drivers are used as a temporary module for integration testing.

80. What is End-To-End Testing?

Ans:

Testing the fully integrated application to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirements is called System Testing AKA End to End testing. Verifying the completed system to ensure that the application works as intended or not.

81. What is Functional Testing?

Ans:

In simple words, what the system actually does is functional testing. To verify that each function of the software application behaves as specified in the requirement document. Testing all the functionalities by providing appropriate input to verify whether the actual output is matching the expected output or not. It falls within the scope of black box testing and the testers need not concern about the source code of the application.

82. What is Non-Functional Testing?

Ans:

In simple words, how well the system performs is non-functionality testing. Non-functional testing refers to various aspects of the software such as performance, load, stress, scalability, security, compatibility etc., Main focus is to improve the user experience on how fast the system responds to a request.

83. What is Acceptance Testing?

Ans:

It is also known as pre-production testing.  This is done by the end-users along with the testers to validate the functionality of the application. After successful acceptance testing. Formal testing conducted to determine whether an application is developed as per the requirement. It allows the customer to accept or reject the application. Types of acceptance testing are Alpha, Beta & Gamma.

84. What is Alpha Testing?

Ans:

Alpha testing is done by the in-house developers (who developed the software) and testers. Sometimes alpha testing is done by the client or outsourcing team with the presence of developers or testers.

85. What is Beta Testing?

Ans:

Beta testing is done by a limited number of end-users before delivery. Usually, it is done in the client’s place.

86. What is Gamma Testing?

Ans:

Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. It is done at the client place. It is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

87. What is Smoke Testing?

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Smoke Testing is done to make sure if the build we received from the development team is testable or not. It is also called as “Day 0” check. It is done at the “build level”. It helps not to waste the testing time to simply testing the whole application when the key features don’t work or the key bugs have not been fixed yet.

88. What is Sanity Testing?

Ans:

Sanity Testing is done during the release phase to check for the main functionalities of the application without going deeper. It is also called as a subset of Regression testing. It is done at the “release level”. At times due to release time constraints rigorous regression testing can’t be done to the build, sanity testing does that part by checking main functionalities.

89. What is Retesting?

Ans:

To ensure that the defects which were found and posted in the earlier build were fixed or not in the current build. Say, Build 1.0 was released. Test team found some defects (Defect Id 1.0.1, 1.0.2) and posted. Build 1.1 was released, now testing the defects 1.0.1 and 1.0.2 in this build is retesting.

90. What is Regression Testing?

Ans:

Repeated testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software components.

Usually, we do regression testing in the following cases:

  1. 1. New functionalities are added to the application
  2. 2. Change Requirement (In organizations, we call it as CR)
  3. 3. Defect Fixing
  4. 4. Performance Issue Fix
  5. 5. Environment change (E.g., Updating the DB from MySQL to Oracle)

91. What is GUI Testing?

Ans:

Graphical User Interface Testing is to test the interface between the application and the end user.

92. What is Recovery Testing?

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Recovery testing is performed in order to determine how quickly the system can recover after the system crash or hardware failure. It comes under the type of non-functional testing.

93. What is Globalization Testing?

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Globalization is a process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without any changes.

94. What is Localization Testing (L10N Testing)?

Ans:

Localization is a process of adapting globalization software for a specific region or language by adding local specific components.

95. What is Installation Testing?

Ans:

It is to check whether the application is successfully installed and it is working as expected after installation.

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