Six Sigma Interview Questions and Answers

Six Sigma Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 14th Oct 2020, Blog, Interview Question

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Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. Six Sigma strategies seek to improve the quality of the output of a process by identifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing impact variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, mainly empirical, statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization who are experts in these methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has specific value targets, for example: reduce process cycle time, reduce pollution, reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction, and increase profits.

1.Explain Six Sigma?

Ans:


The measure of variation in a process which is statistical in nature is known as Sigma. The Six Sigma process is derived if the quality is 3.4 Defect per Million Opportunities (DPMO). Six Sigma is a problem solving methodology. This methodology is applicable to a process for eliminating the root cause of defects and the costs that are associated with the same.

2.Explain Six Sigma Levels?

Ans:


It is a methodology and set of tools for the measurement of process quality. It demonstrates that the business process is well controlled. Six Sigma level can be achieved when the accuracy of your process gets only 3.4 defects per million opportunities.

3.What is the load testing process?

Ans:

The load testing process is a process of putting your demand on a software system or computing and measuring its process.

4.Explain Six Sigma Variation Kinds?

Ans:


Six Sigma aims to deliver quality products to the customers. It also intends to reduce output variation by predicting process results. Processes here would be measure, analyze, improve and control, Variation here means how much has the output deviated from the actual. Six sigma means as the process deviation increases the sigma number is decreased. Having the sigma number as 6 would mean that there will be no items that don’t meet with the specifications.

5.Explain The Different Kinds Of Variations?

Ans:


Reduction variations is the strategy of Six Sigma approach. Standard deviation which is a square root of variance is the measure of variations. The approach is to reduce the sigma value and the better process experience.
However , there are two other types of variations, namely, Operator origin variations measured as Reproducibility and Guage variations …repeatability is another element of Guage variations coming from operator origin.Measurement system analysis deals withis types of variations.
There is another aspect of looking at the multiple sample variations by way of ANOVA

6.Tell Me Who Forms The Part Of Six Sigma Implementation Team?

Ans:


Six Sigma implementation team has five key players:

  • Executive leaders
  • Champions
  • Master black belt
  • Black belts
  • Green belts

7.Explain Who Forms The Part Of Six Sigma Implementation Team?

Ans:


Executive leaders: The decision of to six sigma is taken by the main team – Executive Leaders. They promote the six sigma throughout the enterprise and ensure the commitment of the enterprise in six sigma. The executive leaders are mainly CEO, or some of the board of directors. The six sigma initiative is funded by Executive leaders. The executive leaders should be confident and determine that six sigma will improve organization process and it is succeeded.

Champions:

Champions are normally the senior manager of the enterprise. He promotes six sigma mainly among the users of the business. He acts as a coach, mentor, selects projects, decides the objectives, allocates the resources and removes hurdles from black belt players. The champions fight for removing black belt hurdles.

Master Black-Belt:

This role highly demands the technical capability in six sigma. All organizations are not started with six sigma and will not have the same. Normally outsiders are recruited for it. The key role of Master Black-belt is train, mentor and

guide. He supports the executive leaders in candidate’s selection; teach the fundamentals and train resources and right project for resources.

Black-Belt:

Black-belt always leads a selected project team for show casing six sigma. Their responsibilities include finding out the variations and looking after minimizing the variations. Black belt normally selects the projects, train resources, and they are the real implementers of the project. They are the core resources to six sigma as the actual implementation of six sigma is done by black belt, in the enterprise.

Green Belt:

The green belt resources supports black belt in the functionality areas. They are part time resources who work mainly on projects for six sigma implementation. The six sigma methodologies for solving problems are applied by green belt and help for defining the basic six sigma implementation of the enterprise. The too support black belt in implementing six sigma in the enterprise.

8.Explain The Six Sigma Implementation Team?

Ans:


Attaining Six Sigma is a team effort. An organization who wants to attain Six Sigma needs a lot of restructuring and change in attitude. It includes building up the following roles to take up the required responsibilities:

  • Executive Leadership-Includes CEO and other top management team members. They set up the vision of Six Sigma and empower their team mates with the freedom and resources required for the improvements in the process.
  • Champions- Responsible for the implementation of the process in an integrated manner throughout the organization. They come from Top management.
  • Master Black Belts-Act as in-house expert coach for the organization. They assist Champions and train Black Belts and Green Belts.
  • Black Belts-Apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects. Their focus is on execution of activities for Six Sigma.
  • Green Belts-These are like the soldiers on the war front who actually implement the planned action.

9.What Are Function Points In Project Management?

Ans:


In order to express the amount of business functionality of an information system, a function point is used as a unit of measurement.
There is International Function Point Users Group in US based organization of users of the software metric Function Point Analysis Every function point is a unit of measure used by IFPUG functional size measurement method.
The IFPUG FSM is one of the currently recognized standards of ISO for functionally sizing software.

10.What Is Six Sigma Dmaic?

Ans:


The DMAIC project methodology has five phases:
Define the problem, the voice of the customer, and the project goals, specifically. Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data. Analyze the

data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships. Determine what the relationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation.
Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using techniques such as design of experiments, poka yoke or mistake proofing, and standard work to create a new, future state process. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability.
Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. Implement control systems such as statistical process control, production boards, visual workplaces, and continuously monitor the process.

11.What Are Quality Management Tools And Methods Used In Six Sigma?

Ans:


Within the individual phases of a DMAIC or DMADV project, Six Sigma utilizes many established quality-management tools that are also used outside Six Sigma.

12.When And By Whom Was Six Sigma Developed ?

Ans:


In 1986 Six Sigma was developed by Motorola.

13.What Is The Symbol Of Six Sigma ?

Ans:


Six Sigma has a greek symbol which is ”sigma”. It is the standard deviation utilized to measure the variation in the process.

14.Six Sigma Uses Two Key Methods. What Are They?

Ans:


They are DMAIC and DMADV

15.What Does Dmaic Stands For In Six Sigma ?

Ans:


DMAIC is an abbreviation for define, measure, analyze, improve and control.

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16.What Does Dmadv Stands For In Six Sigma ?

Ans:


DMADV is an abbreviation for define, measure, analyze, develop, verify.

17.Have You Seen Six Sigma Jobs Being Advertised Under Many Titles ?

Ans:


Six Sigma jobs are advertised under many titles,not always as obvious as Six Sigma Black Belt,Six Sigma Consultant or Six Sigma Analyst.Other possible titles include things like Functional Project Lead Six Sigma Program Manager,Lead Analyst/Project Manager,Director of Operational Excellence, Business Process Manager or Senior Projects Manager.Whatever the exact title, the organization is looking for someone with the skills of a Six Sigma Black Belt.

18.Explain Scope Of Your Future In Six Sigma Type Job ?

Ans:


You need to be able to demonstrate a good understanding of processes and quality methodologies and a willingness to take an initiative and lead change. Another crucial skill is the ability to link strategy to execution.

19.Explain The Quality Levels Of Six Sigma ?

Ans:


Six Sigma quality levels are 99.9996% accurate and also they have only 3.4 defects per million opportunities.

20.Explain Key Roles In All Six Sigma Efforts ?

Ans:


The following are the key roles of Six Sigma efforts:

Sponsor:

Business executive leading the organization.

Champion:

Responsible for Six Sigma strategy, deployment, and vision.

Process Owner:

Owner of the process, product, or service being improved responsible for long-term sustainable gains.

Master Black Belts:

Coach black belts expert in all statistical tools.

Black Belts:

Work on 3 to 5 $250,000-per-year projects; create $1 million per year in value.

Green Belts:

Work with black belt on projects.

21.Explain Maic In Six Sigma ?

Ans:


The following explains the MAIC :

Measure:

Problem assessment by gathering right information.

Analyze:

Identify root cause of problem by using statistical tools.

Improve:

Solve the problem (not the symptom).

Control:

Put a plan in place to make a check that problems stay fixed and sustain the gains.

22.How Should Company Integrate Lean Into Six Sigma ?

Ans:


Lean takes the waste out of an area six sigma resolves the issue

23.Differentiate Between Load Test And Performance Testing?

Ans:


More stress is involved in performance testing, on system and checks whether the system performance is same as the less stress condition. Where as in load testing the stress is kept beyond the limit specified by the client.Performance testing is the super set of load testing. Load testing involves the testing process which determines how well the system is capable for handling concurrent users or the load. Where as performance testing includes the load as well as the stress testing.

24.Explain Load Testing Process ?

Ans:


The following steps explains the Load testing process :
Plan the test. A clear test plan is required for ensuring the test scenarios to accomplish the objectives of load testing Creation of Vusers. Vusers scripts are created that contains the tasks performed by each and every Vuser and all Vuser tasks collectively as a whole.
Creation of scenario. Describing the events that occurred in the testing. This process includes the list machines, scripts, and Vusers which run during the scenario. The Load Runner controller is used for creation of automatic scenarios.

25.Mention The List Of Acceptable Number Of Defects Per Million Corresponding To Each Sigma Level ?

Ans:

Following information mentions the acceptable number of defects per million to correspond to each Sigma level:

Sigma level

Defects per million opportunities

1690,000
308,527
66,817
46,220
5232
63.4

26.Explain The Concept Of Standard Deviation?

Ans:

Standard deviation quantifies the variation most accurately indicating the degree of variation in a set of measurement or a process by measuring the average spread of data around the mean. It provides accurate information

27.What are the different variations that are used in the Six Sigma process?

Ans:

Mainly 4 variations are used in six sigma process:

Mean: This measurement is only useful for a particular application and the values are calculated. In this process, the variations are measured and compared using the average techniques of mathematics.

Median:  This process is initiated by identifying the highest and the lowest values and then divide the value by 2. In this process, the variations are measured and compared by taking the midpoint the data set range.

Range:

This process depends on the highest rate and lowest values for a specific data range.

Mode:

  Mode is the most occurred values in a given data set range.

28.What is the difference between the Six Sigma DMAIC and DMADV methodologies?

Ans:

The DMAIC project methodology has five phases:

  • Define the system, the voice of the customer and their requirements, and the project goals, specifically.
  • Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data; calculate the ‘as-is’ Process Capability.
  • Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships. Determine what the relationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. Seek out the root cause of the defect under investigation.
  • Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using techniques such as the design of experiments, poka-yoke or mistake proofing, and standard work to create a new, future state process. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability.
  • Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from the target are corrected before they result in defects. Implement control systems such as statistical process control, production boards, visual workplaces, and continuously monitor the process. This process is repeated until the desired quality is achieved.

On the other hand, DMADV methodologies five phases are:

  • Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy.
  • Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality), measure product capabilities, production process capability, and measure risks.
  • Analyze to develop and design alternatives
  • Design an improved alternative, best suited per analysis in the previous step
  • Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s).

29.Explain the concept of the Fishbone diagram.

Ans:

Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram is a visualization tool for categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root causes.

30.What is the difference between load test and performance testing?

Ans:

Performance Testing is a type of software testing that can be carried out to measure the system performance in terms of sensitivity, reactivity, and stability under a particular workload.

On the other hand, The load testing process is a process of putting your demand on a software system or computing and measuring its process.

31.What are the three key elements for the six sigma process improvement?

Ans:

The 3 key elements for the six sigma process improvement are customer, process, and employees.

32.What is a Top-down approach in the six sigma process?

Ans:

The top-down approach is one of the processes within the Six Sigma implementation. This approach is aligned with business strategy and customer needs. Although, the major disadvantage of this process is its scope is very broad and at the same time it is difficult to execute it in a specified amount of time. 

33.Explain what do you mean by FMEA?

Ans:

FMEA is an acronym for Failure Modes and Effect Analysis. FMEA is a risk assessment tool, that evaluates the severity, occurrence, and detection of risks to prioritize the most urgent ones.

34.What are the three steps for Root cause analysis?

Ans:

The 3 steps for Root cause analysis are:

  • The Open step: In this step, all the team members gather together and do a brainstorming session on all possible scenarios.
  • The Narrow step: They narrow down all the possible explanations and scenarios are to an extent considering the current performance.
  • The close step: The project team validates all the narrowed down explanations for the current performance.

35.What is the main difference between Lean and Six Sigma?

Ans:

Six Sigma follows the DMAIC methodology to reduce waste. On the other hand, Lean uses these following 7 steps:

    1. 1.Overproduction: This occurs when products are being produced but there is no customer to demand it.
    2. 2.Waiting: If there is a time lag after every step of production, no value is being to the project in the meantime.
    3. 3.Transport: This happens when products are being moved in an inefficient way.
    4. 4.Motion: This one denotes poor work standards and employees being involved in inefficient activities between tasks.
    5. 5.Over-processing: This takes place when you spend too much time in producing a product.
    6. 6.Inventory: When your inventory level is too high and you have too much work in progress, this kind of waste takes place.
    7. 7.Defects: This is the number of times when employees spend identifying and fixing production mistakes.
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36.What is Lean Six Sigma?

Ans:

Lean Six Sigma is a method that relies on a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically removing waste and reducing variation. It combines lean manufacturing/lean enterprise and Six Sigma to eliminate the eight kinds of waste: Defects, Over-Production, Waiting, Non-Utilized Talent, Transportation, Inventory, Motion, and Extra-Processing.

37.What is the difference between Cpk and Ppk?

Ans:

Cpk stands for process capability index. It measures how close a process is running to its specification limits, relative to the natural variability of the process.

On the other hand,  Ppk stands for a process performance index that verifies if the sample has been generated from the process is capable of meeting Customer CTQs or not.

38.Name some Lean Six Sigma tools.

Ans:

Some Lean Six Sigma tools are:

  • Kaizen
  • Poka-yoke
  • FMEA
  • Value Stream Mapping

39.What does DFSS stand for in the six sigma process?

Ans:

DFSS stands for Design For Six Sigma. It is a business process management method related to traditional Six Sigma and is used in many industries, like finance, marketing, basic engineering, process industries, waste management, and electronics.

40.What is a data collection plan?

Ans:

A data collection plan a plan to collect the necessary data. The main reason to collect data is to understand the current process and portray possible improvement suggestions. The data can be collected from three different primary sources they are as follows:

    1. 1.Input: input is where the data generation.
    2. 2.Process: the process is the execution steps where the factors like efficiency, time requirements, cost, defects are taken into consideration for process improvements.
    3. 3.Output: it is a straight measurement of efficiency.

41.Explain the difference between a Histogram and a Boxplot.

Ans:

A Histogram represents the frequency distribution of numeric data, while a Boxplot summarizes the important aspects of continuous data distribution.

42.What is VSM?

Ans:

VSM stands for Value Stream Mapping. This is a methodology used to eliminate wastes from a process and map the flow of information required to deliver a product or service.

43.What is MSA?

Ans:

MSA stands for Measurement System Analysis. One can use MSA to check if a measurement system is accurate. It evaluates a system’s accuracy, precision, and stability.

44.How to develop a SIPOC process map?

Ans:

SIPOC stands for Suppliers Input Process Output Customers.

It defines that a process can be summarized as a series of consecutive steps and activities that are executed in a timely manner to get a definite output.

45.What does executive leaders, champions, Master Black belt, green belts and black belts mean?

Ans:

Six Sigma is not only about techniques, tools, and statistics, but the main thing depends on people. In Six Sigma, there are five key players:

  • Executive leaders
  • Champions
  • Master black belt
  • Black belts
  • Green belts

46.What is Pareto principle?

Ans:

Pareto principle, also paraphrased as 80/20 principle, is a simple and effective problem tackling way in management. It says that 20% of your problems lead to the other 80 % 

of problems. So rather than concentrating on the 80% of problems if you concentrate on 20% of problems you can save a lot of trouble. So in Pareto you analyze the problems and only concentrate on 20% of your vital problems.

If you look at the above fish bone diagram we have discussed, all the root problems are due to only three reasons:

  • No tools are used.
  • No process is defined.
  • Many resignations.

47.Which of the following is the key benefit of multi-vari charting?

Ans:

  • It keeps track of the time when measurements were made
  • It graphically displays the variation in a process
  • It assists in the breakdown of components of variation
  • It is much easier to plot than most control charts

48.What is lean philosophy?

Ans:

  • Helps to provide a perfect value through a perfect value creation process that has zero waste
  • Continuous Improvement
  • Higher output by encouraging people to work hard and have targets
  • Reducing cost and improving purchasing power. When samples are drawn out of a population randomly, what is said to be true?

Lean philosophy: Lean six sigma is a philosophy for performance improvement by removing waste and reducing variation. This philosophy removes eight kinds of defects. This method relies on collaborative team effort.

49.When samples are drawn out of a population randomly, what is said to be true?

Ans:

  • The sample mean is always the same as the population mean
  • The sample standard deviation will be the same as population standard deviation
  • The sampling distribution approaches normality with an increase in sample size
  • The sampling distribution would be triangular if the population is distributed as a triangular distribution

A random sampling is a sampling technique. Each sample has an equal opportunity of being chosen and the sample chosen is the unbiased representation of the entire population.

50.Which of the following tools is most commonly used in the define phase of a project?

Ans:

  • Affinity diagram
  • Control chart
  • Failure mode and effects analysis
  • Data collection checklist

Define is the first phase of the DMAIC phase of six sigma project. A control chart is the most effective tool used in the define phase.

51.Which of these is considered a prioritization tool?

Ans:

  • Multi-voting
  • Customer needs prioritization
  • Focus Groups
  • Nominal Group Technique

Multi-voting is a group decision making technique used for brain storming of ideas and prioritizing them. This technique reduces options to prevent information overload. Multi-voting is also known as N/3 voting. N refers to the total number of ideas.

52.Which is true about critical path?

Ans:

    1. 1. Zero slack
    2. 2. Event oriented
    3. 3. Shortest path
    4. 4. Time and cost not considered

A critical path analysis uses network analysis and is widely used in project management. A critical path analyses helps to schedule and manage complex projects a critical path has zero slack.

53.The critical path of the project is best described as

Ans:

(A) a series of steps with the highest costs

(B) The tasks in the project which have the highest risk of failure

(C) the sum of the tasks with the shortest time requirements

 (D) longest path from the start to the completion of the project

A critical path is a visual network planning tool. Critical path is the longest path from the time of beginning of the project till the end.

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54.Which of the following statistical tests should be used by the Green Belt for testing the means between two inter-related groups?

Ans:

  • 2 Sample t assuming equal variances
  • 2 Sample t assuming unequal variances
  • Paired t-test
  • z test

A paired test is used to determine if the mean difference between the two sets of observations is zero. In a paired sample t-test, there is a twice measurement of each subject or entity. This results in a pair of observation.

55.Standard Deviation in Six Sigma applications is referred to as the difference from the:

Ans:

  • Target
  • Specification limits
  • Nearest fit value
  • Mean

A standard deviation in six sigma applications that lets you know how the data points are grouped around the mean for a specific given process, which in turn tells you how much variation exists.

56.In a typical DFSS Approach, which of these stages figures in most DFSS approaches?

Ans:

  • Innovate
  • Identify
  • Improve
  • Control

In the design for six sigma (DFSS) approach in six sigma, is an improvement process in the six sigma to develop new processes or products. The DFSS approach can also be applied if the current process requires an incremental improvement.

57.Japanese 5S methodology is created and used for:

Ans:

  • Continuous Improvement
  • Prevent Defects
  • Creating a productive work environment
  • Reduce Variation

The Japanese 5s method supports lean in its basic form. The 5S stands for sort, straighten, shine, standardize, and sustain and is based on the Japanese concept for housekeeping (seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke). This method helps organizations to maintain simplified and streamlined work environment.

58.What does OEE stand for?

Ans:

  • Overall Equipment Effectiveness
  • Overall Estimation Effectiveness
  • Overall Equipment Estimation
  • Overall Effective Estimation

The overall equipment effectiveness is a measure of the manufacturing productivity. He manufacturing productivity is calculated by taking into the sub-components of 

manufacturing process like availability, performance and quality. OEE is the ratio of productive time to the planned production time.

  • OEE = (Good Count × Ideal Cycle Time)/ Planned production time

59.Which of the following techniques used in DOE helps you in identifying pure error?

Ans:

  • Replication
  • Blocking
  • Randomization
  • Coding

A blocking technique helps to identify variables that are not important to the experimenter. Blocking technology reduces variability. Typically, blocking is an arrangement of experimental units in groups or blocks which are similar.

60.A Six Sigma Green Belt practitioner constructs a control chart to display a process mean and its outer limits. In such a chart, what does UCL stand for?

Ans:

  • Upper Cycle Length
  • Upper Control Limit
  • Upper Cycle Limit
  • Upper Control Length

Control charts are two-dimensional graph plotting visuals plotting performance on x-axis and time on the y-axis. Control chart has three attributes; Upper control limit (UCL), Lower control limit (LCL) and average or center line of the data. The upper control limit is a three process control above the standard deviation.

61.One of the purposes of using a fishbone diagram is to:

Ans:

  • Separate a problem into smaller components
  • Identify and classify sources of variations into major groups
  • Define the problem in sequential order
  • Show the relationship between parameters

A fish bone diagram is also called a cause-effect diagram. It is a visualization tool to display as many causes as possible for a problem. It sorts ideas into categories. This is a more structured method in cause and effect analysis.

62.Which approach talks about equipment effectiveness?

Ans:

  • Lean
  • TPM
  • Six Sigma
  • TOC

The total productive maintenance (TPM) is a new concept and a system of the machines, equipment, processes, and employees that add business value to an organization. This concept is used in equipment effectiveness.

63.The best metric for measuring defectives is:

Ans:

  • DPMO
  • DPU
  • PPM
  • DPO

The best metrics for measuring defectives in six sigma is parts per million defective (PPM). PPM is used to get the more accurate measure of defective rate. This method is more apt when the number of defective products produced is very small and percentage defective is not very effective.

64.If the Measure stage in a DMAIC approach is all about measuring the data for the existing process, what is the main objective in the Measure phase in a DFSS approach?

Ans:

  • Measure what you can measure
  • Measure what the customer wants you to measure
  • Set the key measurement steps and metrics
  • Define operational metrics

The DFSS approach is used to design a product or service from scratch. This approach produces a very low defect level product or service. To produce such a product or service the customer expectations and needs should be measured.

65.All the factors that might contribute to a production problem must be discovered. Which among the following problem-solving tools might be the best choice?

Ans:

  • Pareto diagrams
  • Fishbone diagrams
  • Histograms
  • Control charts

A fish bone diagram identifies all the possible cause and effect to identify the root cause of a problem.

66.Which of the following tools is used extensively in quality function deployment (QFD)?

Ans:

(A) Affinity diagram

(B) Matrix diagram

(C) Cause and effect diagram

(D) Activity network diagram

Quality function deployment (QFD) is a research tool and a systematic method used to modify products to meet customer requirements. QFD is used to find the quality elements and engineering management measures that have the greatest influence on customer needs.  Relationship matrix diagram gives complex relationships between quality elements and customer needs and is displayed with signs or weights.

67.Which of the following is the LEAST likely tool to assist the problem definition stage of Six Sigma?

Ans:

  • CTQ trees
  • Pareto analysis
  • Product yield data
  • Control charts

The problem definition stage is the first stage in six sigma. DMAIC is a five-stage process of six sigma of problem-solving. “Define” is the first stage. Product yield data does not support the first stage in Six sigma.

68.In a typical Measure Phase, which of the following activities should a Green Belt perform first?

Ans:

  • Stability
  • Capability
  • MSA
  • Normality

The measured phase has more numeric and data analysis. The MSA( measurement system analysis) will quantify the amount of variation in the data induced by the measuring system. Conducting MSA can be very exhaustive.

69.In a typical MSA GAGE RR study conducted, what should the Six Sigma team determine about the Measurement System first?

Ans:

  • Accuracy
  • Stability
  • Resolution
  • Linearity

The GAGE RR study is conducted in the measured phase of the six sigma project.  It measures the accuracy of the project.

70.Which of the following scenarios is best suited to use an X-bar and R chart?

Ans:

  • A smaller sample size is needed
  • It is necessary to know when to investigate a process for causes of variation
  • The machine capability is wider than the specification
  • An acceptable quality level must be established

The X-Bar chart is used to plot the process mean and process range. The R-chart is used to review the process variation which must be in control to interpret correctly the X-Bar chart.

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71.When a cause-and-effect diagram is used to solve plant problems, what are the three parts a session is customarily divided into?

Ans:

  • Teamwork, cost-effectiveness, efficiency
  • Brainstorming, prioritization and plan development
  • Teamwork, planning and execution
  • Cost-effectiveness, plan development, teamwork.

A cause and effect diagram helps to identify the possible causes and the outcomes of a problem. This is done is three parts; Brainstorming, prioritization and plan development

72.“Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing” are terms that describe

Ans:

(A) Process variation reduction and improvement phases

(B) Root Cause identification and corrective action

(C) Stages of team growth

(D) Steps of the brainstorming process

Teams can perform better collectively than as individuals to achieve common goals. “Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing” are terms that describe team growth and the various stages involved.

73.Which item should not be identified in the Define Phase?

Ans:

  • Root Causes
  • The key problem area
  • Possible financial loss
  • Intangibles

The define phase in DMAIC consists of identifying the business opportunity, key problem areas, selecting the key resources, and initiating the project charter. This phase is to define all the possible elements of a project.

74.The distribution that follows principles of an exponential distribution is:

Ans:

  • Poisson
  • Binomial
  • Chi-Square
  • Normal

A Poison distribution is a discrete probability distribution of the number of events in a fixed period of time, and the exponential distribution deals with the time between occurrences of successive events as time flows by continuously. A Poisson distribution can be derived from the exponential distribution.

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