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Classes and Objects – C# Fundamentals Tutorial

Last updated on 12th Aug 2022, Blog, Tutorials

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From the previous chapter, we tend to learned that C# is associated with object-oriented artificial language.All C# maps to categories and objects, beside their attributes and ways.Example: In reality, an automobile is an associated object.Cars have attributes like weight and color, also as ways like propulsion and braking.The category is like associate object creator or “blueprint” for making objects.

About

Class and Object square measure the essential ideas of ObjectOriented Programming that revolve around the reallife entities.A category could be a user defined blueprint or example from that object’s square measure created.

Everything in C# is related to categories and objects, beside its attributes and ways.Example: In reality, an automobile is an associated object. Cars have attributes like weight and color, also as ways like propulsion and braking.

Classes square measure like object constructors, or “blueprints” for making objects.All information members and member functions of the category are often accessed victimization objects.No memory is allotted once the category is outlined, however memory is allotted once it’s instantiated (that is, once the thing is created)

C# objects and categories

C# Objects and Categories

Because C# is associate object-oriented language, programs square measure designed victimization C# objects and categories.

C# objects

In C#, the thing is that the actual entity. For instance, chairs, cars, pens, cell phones, laptops, etc.In different words, an associate object is associate entity associated with state and behavior.Here, state suggests that information and behavior suggests that perform.Objects square measure run-time entities and square measure created at run time.

The object is an associated instance of the category. All members of the category are often accessed through the thing.Let’s investigate an associated example of making an associated object with the new keyword.

  • Student s1 = new Student (); // produce associate object for Student

In this example, Student could be a kind associated with s1 could be a reference variable that points to an instance of the scholar category.

C# Class

In C#, a category could be a cluster of comparable objects.This is often the guide within which the things are going to be created.It will contain fields, methods, constructors, and so on. Let’s investigate associate example of a C# category that has solely 2 fields.When a variable is said directly in an exceedingly category, it’s usually known as a field (or attribute).Although not needed, it’s advised that you simply begin with a capital once naming your category. Also, to stay your code organized, it’s common for C# files and sophistication names to match. However, this is often not needed (as in Java).

Create associated object

Objects square measure created from the category.We’ve already created a category known as automotive, that we are able to use to make objects.To make an automotive object, specify the thing name once the category name and use the keyword new.

Cases

Create an associated object named “myObj” and use it to come up with a color worth.

  • class Car
  • {
  • string color = “red”;
  • static void Main (string [] args)
  • {
  • Car myObj = new automotive ();
  • Console.WriteLine (myObj.color);
  • }
  • }

Note that we tend to square measure victimization of the dot (.) Syntax to access the variables / fields within the category (myObj.color). you may learn additional information regarding the sphere within the next chapter.

Classes And Objects In C#

  • An article in a very programming language is sort of a real item.
  • Object-Oriented Programming is a concept wherever the square measure is planned utilizing sets of categories and contains a drawback to figure on program advancement and support.
  • A class is associate intelligent assortment of comparable kinds of articles.
  • It’s one among the foremost major types in C#.
  • It’s associated info structure that’s a mixture of ways, Functions, and Fields.
  • It characterizes the powerful occurrences as an example of objects that ought to be created for the category.
  • For Example within the event that you simply square measure gathering info for associate understudy in associate application.
  • There is a couple of of|some|many} properties of associate understudy sort of a roll number, class, segment, subject, so forth each one of those properties is named a property of understudy category and also the understudy is thought of as an associate assortment of this multitude of properties.
  • In this means, here a category addresses associate understudy as an example the assortment of articles and understudy credits/properties is named as its things. we’ll focus on these thoroughly in close subjects.

Multiple objects

You can produce multiple objects in a very class:

Example: produce 2 automotive objects.

  • Class car
  • {
  • string color = “red”;
  • static void Main (string [] args)
  • {
  • Car myObj1 = new automotive ();
  • car myObj2 = new automotive ();
  • Console.WriteLine (myObj1.color)
  • Console.WriteLine (myObj2.color);
  • }
  • }

Object and sophistication Instance

In some cases the terms category and item square measure utilized conversely nonetheless each square measure varied substances.A category is that that means the article but it’s not merely the item. The article is otherwise referred to as an incident of the category. category examples square measure created by utilizing the “new” administrator. Another administrator dispenses memory for an incident and summons a builder to introduce it and returns a reference object.

For Example, to create a case for the category understudy then

  • Understudy stu = new Student();

Here we’ve created a case of sophistication “Understudy” and that we have characterized “stu” as a supply of perspective items.

Class Members

Individuals from a category are of static or case sort. Case people square measure a chunk of the item tho’ static people square measure a chunk of the category.

Let’s read some of the category members:

Fields

:

Variables gift within a category square measure referred to as fields.

Constants

:

Constant qualities gift within the category.

Methods

:

Logical activities performed by the category.

Constructors

:

Needed to introduce the category or example of the category.

Using multiple categories

You can additionally produce an associate object of 1 category and access it in another category. usually|this can be} often accustomed higher organize {a category|a category} (one class has all the fields and ways, the opposite has the most () (code to execute) method)

  • prog2.cs
  • prog.cs
  • prog2.cs
  • Klasse car
  • prog.cs
  • Class program
  • {
  • static void Main (string [] args)
  • {
  • Auto myObj = new automotive ();
  • Console.WriteLine (myObj.color);
  • }
  • }

C# Objects and categories

Because C# is associate degree object oriented language, programs area unit designed exploitation C# objects and categories.

C# object

In C#, the thing is that the actual entity. as an example, chairs, cars, pens, cell phones, laptops, etc. In alternative words, an associate degree object is an associate degree entity with state and behavior. Here, state means that information and behavior means that operate. Objects are area unit run-time entities and area units created at run time. The thing is the associate degree instance of the category. All members of the category are accessed through the thing. Let’s check up on associate degree examples of making associate degree object exploitation the new keyword.

  • Student s1 = new student (); // produce associate degree object for Student

Methods

Strategies unite the people from the category that execute a coherent or process activity that’s meant to be performed by the article or the category. Static techniques within the event that characterized the area unit got to through the category and every one the case ways the area unit got to utilizing a happening of the category. Techniques will likewise contain boundaries that imply variable references being passed to the strategy. a way might likewise contain a come back kind meaning the process final result/worth of the strategy which will be came.

Some focuses to remember whereas operating with the strategy are:

On the off chance that a way doesn’t come back at any price then the come back varieties ought to be void. The mark or name of the technique has to be compelled to be attention-grabbing within a category. The mark of a way implies the name of the strategy aboard the Parameters, Modifiers, and information variety of the Parameters.

What area unit Parameters?

Boundaries area unit the qualities or reference factors that area unit passed to the technique. Boundaries settle for their qualities from contentions that are unit determined whereas conjuring a particular technique

Different Types Of Parameters Are:

Different Type Of Parameters
  • ●Reference Parameters
  • ●Esteem Parameters
  • ●Yield Parameters
  • ●Exhibit Parameters

In a massive portion of our models, we’ll utilize either reference kind or price type.

How do we tend to explore these exhaustively?

A reference parameter is employed once you have to be compelled to pass a competition by means of reference. This suggests that the competition passes as a boundary to the technique ought to be a variable with a price and through execution, it has to be compelled to address the capability space of the price of the variable.

The esteem parameter is employed to pass the information esteems to a competition. {the price|the price|The value} boundary alludes to a close-by issue that’s passed as associate degree underlying worth to the competition that’s then passed because of the boundary.

C# category In

In this example, Student could be a kind associate degreed s1 could be a reference variable that points to an instance of the coed category. C#, a category could be a cluster of comparable objects. This can be the model during which the things are created. It will contain fields, methods, constructors, and so on. Let’s check up on associate degree example of a C# category that has solely 2 fields.

  • Public category student
  • {
  • int id; // Field or information member
  • string name; // Field or information member
  • }

C# Object and sophistication example

Example of sophistication with 2 fields id and name Let’s check up on. produce an associate degree instance of the category, initialize the thing, and output the thing price.

Class inheritance

Classes absolutely guide inheritance, an essential function of object-oriented programming. Your newly created category may inherit from other, non-sealed classes, and alternative classes can inherit from yours and override its digital methods. On top of that, you may implement zero, one, or more interfaces.To accomplish inheritance, a derivation is used, which implies that a category is claimed by making use of a base elegance from which it acquires data and behaviour. The colon and the name of the base elegance are appended to the end of the derived elegance call to indicate the intended target:

All the persons of the bottom elegance, save the builders, are inherited by the category that broadcasts the base elegance. See Inheritance for further detail.In C#, a derived class may efficiently and immediately inherit from a single base class. However, as a base elegance might also also itself derive from some other elegance, a category cannot directly inherit more than one base lesson. In addition, many interfaces may be immediately implemented by a category. Check out Interfaces if you want to learn more.

  • .public elegance Manager : Employee
  • {
  • // Employee fields, properties, techniques and activities are inherited
  • // New Manager fields, properties, techniques and activities pass here…
  • }

Method

A method is a member of a class that implements a logical or computational action performed by an object or class. Static methods, if defined, are accessed through the class, and all instance methods are accessed using instances of the class. The method can also contain parameters that indicate that a variable reference is passed to the method.The method can also include a return type that specifies the calculated final product / value of the returned method. Here are some things to keep in mind when working with the method: If the method does not return a value, the return type must be invalid. The method signature or name must be unique within the class. The signature of a method means the name of the method, parameters, qualifiers, and the data type of the parameters.

The various types of parameters are:

  • ●Reference parameter
  • ●Value parameter
  • ●Output parameters
  • ●Array parameters

Most examples use either reference or value types.Let’s take a closer look. If you want to pass arguments by reference, the reference parameter is used. That is, the argument passed as a parameter to the method is a single-valued variable and must represent the location of the value of the running variable.The value parameter is used to pass the input value as an argument. The value parameter refers to a local variable that is passed as an argument as an initial value and then as a parameter.

Create an object

Sometimes used interchangeably, however categories and objects square measure completely different. the category defines the item kind, however not the item itself. AN object may be a concrete entity supporting a category, typically known as AN instance of the category. A object will be created victimization the new keyword followed by the name of the category on that the item relies, as follows:

  • customer object3 = new client ();
  • Customer object4 = object3;

This code creates 2 object references, each informing a constant object. Therefore, any changes created to the item by object3 are mirrored in succeeding use of object4. categories square measure known as reference varieties as a result of objects that square measure supported a category square measure documented by reference.

Create stores and withdrawals

Create Stores and Withdrawls

Your ledger category must acknowledge stores and withdrawals to figure accurately. however regarding we stock out stores and withdrawals by creating a diary of every exchange for the record. That enjoys some of higher hands over primarily refreshing the equilibrium on each exchange. The set of experiences will be used to review all exchanges and superintend day by day adjustments. By calculating the equilibrium from the historical scene of all exchanges once needed, any mistakes during a solitary exchange that square measure mounted are accurately thought of nonetheless to be determined by the subsequent calculation.We tend to begin by creating ANother kind to deal with an exchange. This is often a basic kind that doesn’t have any liabilities. It wants some properties. build another record named dealing. cs. Add the related to code to it:Presently, however regarding we tend to add a listing allTransactions = new List

Prerequisites

The instructional exercise expects that you just have a machine discovered for neighborhood improvement. On Windows, Linux, or macOS, you’ll utilize the .NET command line interface to form, fabricate, and run applications. On Windows, you’ll utilize Visual Studio 2019.

Conclusion

C# shares a big range of the weather of different item organized dialects, like C++. C# incorporates support for virtual techniques, theoretical categories, and strategy over-burdening. C# offers further highlights that advance additional reusable and additional robust categories, as an example, a predominant model for abrogating techniques in determined categories and a much better special case taking care of the model

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