SAP HANA Interview Questions and Answers

SAP HANA Interview Questions and Answers

Last updated on 05th Oct 2020, Blog, Interview Question

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If you’re looking for SAP HANA Interview Questions for Experienced & Freshers, you are at right place. There are a lot of opportunities for many reputed companies in the world. According to research SAP, HANA has a market share of about 0.8%. So, You still have an opportunity to move ahead in your career in SAP HANA. Mindmajix offers advanced SAP HANA Interview Questions 2019 that helps you in cracking your interview & acquire dream career as SAP HANA Developer.

1. How SAP HANA is different from its competitors?

Ans:

S.NoSAP HANAOther applications
1It make sure of minimum duplicity and redundancy             There are issues related to redundancy and duplicity of data
2Data can be stored permanentlyIt is not always possible
3Overall database management is lowThe same is very high
4A lot of storage space and cost can be savedThis is not always guaranteed

2.What do you mean by SAP HANA?

Ans:

HANA stands for High performance Analytical Application and is one of the best available tools for database management.  It can directly be linked to ERP systems. It is possible for the users to consider the frontend modeling for the replication center in this approach. In addition to this, it is one of the best available tools for load control and management in the server. 

3.Tell something you know about Normalization and De-Normalization?

Ans:

Normalization is nothing but the process that is adopted for the purpose or removing the redundant data from the database. This is generally done by splitting the table into different sections. This actually makes sure of integrity. On the other side, the de-normalization is the process of considering the redundant data so that all the queries which are complex can be enhanced in terms of overall performance. 

4. Organizations have to spend a very large amount of money every year on database management, are you agree with this?

Ans:

Yes, this is totally right. However, it largely depends on the way a users is handling this approach. Basically, data management is a complex approach and there are a lot of tasks which are actually very critical. Managing the database without an effective tool is a big challenge. If an organization can consider a powerful tool like SAP HANA, a lot of tasks can be made simply and a ton of favorable outcomes can be derived simply. 

5.SAP Hana Deployment Options?

Ans:

Private Cloud, Managed ServicePublic Cloud Infrastructure-as-a-ServicePublic Cloud, Pay-as-you-go
Reliable hosting environmentFast time to valueHourly pay-as-you-go rate
Managed services approachNo hardware investmentSingle database instance
Increased flexibility and low TCOFlexible scalabilityRun custom applications only

6. Why there is actually a need for the businesses to invest in a RDBMS tool in the present time?

Ans:

Managing the data is very important. In the present time, data plays an excellent role in the success of almost every business. Data helps in decision making, collaborations, start new ventures, tackling competition, improving quality and so on. There are a large number of other reasons as well that are mandatory for the business to get it done in a right manner. Thus management of data is important.

7.By which command in SQL you can simply boost the visibility of the data in the database?

Ans:

This can be done simply by DCL benefits

8. What you should look for in a Relational Database Management Tool while selecting the same ?

Ans:

There are certain things that largely matters. The needs can vary depending on business to business. A few of the top factors to pay attention to are listed below.

1. It should be compatible and comfortable to us

2. The support must be extensible to different type of formats

3. There should be no limit on the data handling

4. The tool should be good enough to maintain the privacy and the security of data

5. There must be some defined filters for data management

6. The overall cost associated with the tools

7. Configuration and maintenance requirements

9.Name the two types of relational data which you can store in SAP HANA?

Ans:

It is possible for the users to store following two types of Data in the system

1. Column Store

2. Row Store

There is not much difference between both and the users are free to consider the ones as per their need or the requirement.

10.Tell any one advantage that SLT replication offer

Ans:

There are a lot of HANA studios and the SLT Replication can easily be integrated with almost all of them.

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11.What sort of advantages do businesses have with effective database management?

Ans:

  • By data managing the users are free to derive results that can be considered for the long run
  • A lot of difficulties related to data can be avoided easily
  • The data can be managed in sections and can be accessed easily
  • Well managed data is useful in designing reports, preparing documents and assisting various departments in other tasks

12.What are the various tasks in the SAP HANA which are performed by the Modeling Studio?

Ans:

The very first task it perform is selecting the type of tables which are to be stored in the HANA. The selection of Meta data is also the responsibility of the modeling studio. All the data services for entering the data from warehouse or other location are handled by it. It simply manages the ERP instances connections. The entire data services can be used for modeling only through the modeling studio. Any sort of other modeling in the SAP HANA itself is handled by the studio. Moreover the tasks associated with the encoding are also managed and controlled by the modeling studio.

13.Can you name some important components of SAP HANA?

Ans:

SAP HANA Appliance, Database, Application Control and Studio, 

14. What exactly do you mean by the term Latency in database management? What can affect the same?

Ans:

It is nothing but the total time taken for replication from source to target system. Latency depends largely on the size of the data.

15.Do you have any idea about the transformation rules?

Ans:

These are basically the rules which are responsible for managing the source table. All the tasks that are performed on the table depend largely on these set of rules and regulations. A few of these rules are also applicable while handing some replication processes. 

16.Can you tell some important benefits that users can have from the SLT Replication in SAP HANA?

Ans:

It is basically an approach that has been categorized as triggered one i.e. users need not to worry about the overall impact of performance on the source system. The users can simply make sure of filtering, as well as transformation of the data even if the size is bulky. In addition to this, real-time data replication can also be assured by the users.  It is possible for the users to simply make sure of multiple source systems to only one system based on HANA. The reverse action is also possible. 

17.What problems can unnecessary information can cause in the SAP HANA and how you can avoid the same from being stored in the application?

Ans:

Many times the users have to deal with the information that is not relevant with any task. Generally, it can cause slow data processing speeds and can affect accuracy and reliability upto a high extent. The users are free to temporary stop the replication and this can avoid the problem of storing any unwanted information or data in the system. To disable replication temporarily, the users just have to stop the schema related jobs in the system. 

18. What do you know about the Master Controller Job in the HANA?

Ans:

It is a controller that can be deployed for various reasons and purposes. It simply makes sure of creating logging tables and triggers the same in the system.  The synonyms can also be created with the help of master controller. Also, the new entries in the administration tables can be made with the help of this approach. The whole table can also be loaded with this approach. 

19. Can you tell something about the role of Transaction manager and Session in SAP HANA?

Ans:

All the database transactions can be co-ordinated simply with the transaction manager and the users are free to keep a close eye on the closed as well as on the running transactions. The transactions are notified to the users when they are rolled backed or when they are committed. This makes sure of the smooth running of the storage engines.

20. Do you know something about the Data dependence and its types?

Ans:

it is nothing but actually the ability to change the related schema definition at a level in such a manner that all future levels don’t have an impact on the same. 

21. Tell the procedure of how SQL statement is processed?

Ans:

The statement is implemented with a reference of the concerned transaction. Each transaction need user to begin with a new session. This can sometime consumes time but it is beneficial in the long run. 

22. What exactly data redundancy is?

Ans:

Data redundancy means duplicate data in the system. It adds unnecessary cost by grabbing the additional cost and can be the reason of slow operations of the database. 

23.Define Database Management System in your own way?

Ans:

A Database Management system is basically an array of programs with applications with the help of which the users are free to organize the information, retrieve the same, restore and maintain data efficiency in positive manner. 

24.Tell something about the type of relationships in the database?

Ans:

They are:

1. One to one

2. One to many

3. Many to many

The One to One is that approach in which one table is directly associated with the other tables which are similar in terms of their column. The records can be same or they cannot be same in this approach. In the middle approach (One to many) one table is directly associated with another table and that has key relation outside the database. In the last approach every single record in the tables can relate multiple number or records which are present in another table. 

25. What is functional Dependency in database?

Ans:

It is a situation when one attribute defines another and is not under the similar control.

26.Why DML compiler is significant according to you in a database management system?

Ans:

The DML compiler is the one which is responsible for translations of DML statements into a language which is easy to understand by the Query Evaluation engine. It simply makes sure of no occurrence of errors in the database management.

27. What are the benefits that SQL can bring for you?

Ans:

If the queries in the SQL are simple, the users are free to retrieve a very large sum of data very easily from the system. Another good thing about SQL is it is very easy to learn and implement. There is a vast support available for SQL and all the queries can be addressed reliably. Using SQL, the database can be managed very easily and in fact without considering a large amount of coding. 

28.What do you mean by the term Record?

Ans:

A record is nothing but a collection of values or the fields that belong to a specific entity such as the account managing the salary of an employee.

29. What are the advantages of views can bring in the database?

Ans:

1. They simply make sure of accuracy

2. All the outcomes can be generated without the wastage of the resources

3. Access to the important data is always restricted and it doesn’t allow any sort of modifications in the data.

30. What exactly is Data Definition Language?

Ans:

These are the commands in SQLwhich are responsible for defining the structure in which data remains present. Generally, all the changes made to the data are saved automatically and the users don’t have anything to worry about the same.

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31.Where to use Row based storage?

Ans:

  • Select * from FCTSales where Country=’US’

32.Where to use Column based storage?

Ans:

  • Select SUM(Units_sold) from FCTSales where Product=’Lenovo A110’

33.What are the different components in SAP HANA Architecture? What is the use of Index server?

Ans:

  • Index Server
  • Name Server
  • Statistical Server
  • Preprocessor Server
  • XS Engine
  • SAP Host Agent
  • LM structure
  • SAP Solution Manager Diagnostic Agent

Index server contains engine to process data in HANA database. These data engines are responsible to handle all SQL/MDX statement in HANA system. Index server also contains Session and Transaction Manager which is responsible to manage all running and completed transactions.

34.What is the use of Persistence layer in SAP HANA system?

Ans:

Persistence layer provides inbuilt mechanism for disaster recovery in HANA system. It ensures that database is restored to most recent state in case of a system failure.

Persistence layer also manages data, transaction and configuration logs and backup of these files. Backups of data and log files are performed at save points and is normally scheduled every 5-10 minutes.

35.What are the different license keys type in HANA system? What is their validity?

Ans:

  • Temporary License key
  • Permanent License Key

Temporary License keys are automatically installed when you install the HANA database. These keys are valid only for 90 days and you should request permanent license keys from SAP market place before expiry of this 90 days period after installation.

Permanent License keys are valid till the predefine expiration date. License keys specify amount of memory licensed to target HANA installation.

36.What are the different types of permanent license keys in HANA system?

Ans:

There are two types of permanent License keys for HANA system −

Unenforced − If unenforced license key is installed and consumption of HANA system exceeds the license amount of memory, operation of SAP HANA is not affected in this case.

Enforced − If Enforced license key is installed and consumption of HANA system exceeds the license amount of memory, HANA system gets locked. If this situation occurs, HANA system has to be restarted or a new license key should be requested and installed

37.What is SAP HANA cockpit?

Ans:

SAP HANA cockpit is a SAP Fiori Launchpad site that allows you with a single point-of-access to a range of Web-based applications for the online administration of SAP HANA. You access the SAP HANA cockpit through a Web browser.

To open SAP HANA Cockpit → Right click on HANA system in Studio → configuration and monitoring → open SAP HANA cockpit

38.What is the difference between Catalog and Content tab?

Ans:

Catalog −

This contains RDBMS objects like schemas, tables, views, procedures, etc. You can open SQL editor and design database objects.

Content −

This is used to maintain design time repository. You can create new packages and design Information views in HANA system. Various views can be created under content tab to meet business requirement and to perform analytical reports on the top of the Modeling views.

39.Which Information view in SAP HANA is used to implement star schema queries?

Ans:

Analytic View

40.What is difference between Copy and derived from option while creating a new SAP HANA Attribute information view?

Ans:

Copy option allows you to copy an existing Information view and to make changes to it.

Derived option allows to create a copy of an existing view and you can’t make any changes to it.

41.What is the use of Data Foundation, Star Join and Semantics?

Ans:

Data Foundation − to add column base tables.

Star Join − to add other type of views.

Semantic − to define user parameters and to define measures and dimensions.

42.What are the different user parameters that can be defined in Semantic layer?

Ans:

  • Measure and Attribute
  • Hierarchies
  • Parameters/Variables
  • New Calculated Column

43.What is a new calculated column in a HANA Modeling view?

Ans:

New calculated column is defined as a column added on the fly in Analysis tab when a view is activated. This column doesn’t exist at database level or in Data Foundation or Star Join level.

44.To improve the performance of Information view by validating joins and Cardinality, which option cab be used?

Ans:

You can select Switch to Performance Analysis Mode. This allows you to do Performance Analysis by validating correct join type and Cardinality.

45.What are the benefits of using Calculation view with Star join?

Ans:

It simplify the design process as allows you to select multiple measures from multiple fact tables.

You can implement 3NF using Star Join.

46.What is the use of parameters and variables in Semantic layer?

Ans:

Variables are used as an explicit SQL filter directive for view consumers to filter the view data, based on attribute column values specified in variable UI prompt of a BI Client. When you go to data preview, variables allow users to pass the value of attribute defined in the variable.

You can select a single value, range or range in selection type.

47.What are the default nodes available in a Calculation view? 

Ans:

  • Join
  • Union
  • Project
  • Aggregation
  • Rank.

48.What is the default node, if you select a Dimension Calculation view?

Ans:

Projection

49.How do you check if an Information view is saved and activated?

Ans:

There is a diamond mark on view name if it is not active.

50.Can you pass Attribute views and analytic views in a Calculation view with Star join?

Ans:

No. In a Calculation view with Star Join, you can only use Dim Calculation views.

51.What is SAP HANA Analytic Privileges?

Ans:

Analytic Privileges are used to limit access on HANA Information views. You can assign different types of right to different users on different component of a View in Analytic Privileges.

52.Which operating system is supported by HANA?

Ans:

Currently SAP HANA supports SUSE Linux Enterprise Server x86-64 (SLES) 11 SP1 Operating System.

53.What are some features of SAP HANA in-memory database?

Ans:

SAP HANA in-memory database main features are:

  • SAP HANA in-memory is a combination of row based, column based and Object Oriented base technology.
  • It is Hybrid In-memory database.
  • SAP HANA in-memory use parallel processing with multicore CPU Architecture.
  • SAP HANA In-Memory database takes 5 nanoseconds to reads data whereas other conventional databases take 5 milliseconds to read memory data.
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54.What is the Core Architecture of SAP HANA?

Ans:

SAP HANA was first, developed in Java and C++ and was designed only to run on Suse Linux Enterprise Server 11 Operating System . SAP HANA system consists of multiple components which are responsible for enhancing computing power of HANA system.

55.What are the Authentication methods in SAP HANA?

Ans:

In order to get access to HANA database all SAP HANA users must be verified with different Authentications Mechanisms provided by SAP HANA. Various types of authentication method are supported by SAP HANA system.These authentication methods methods are configured while creating user profile.

Here is the list of authentication methods supported by SAP HANA:

  • Kerberos
  • SAML 2.0
  • SAP Logon tickets
  • X.509

Read here more SAP HANA Authentication Mechanisms

56.What are the different compression techniques in HANA?

Ans:

Different types of compression techniques in available in SAP HANA are:

  • Run-length encoding
  • Cluster encoding
  • Dictionary encoding
  • Prefix encoding
  • Indirect encoding
  • Sparse encoding

57.What is the development language used by SAP HANA?

Ans:

C++ is the development language used by SAP HANA.

Read more about C++ Programming Language

58.Can user always upgrade SAP HANA directly, even if there is a significant difference between the source and the target level?

Ans:

We can upgrade SAP HANA from any source level to any target level without an intermediate step. But there are some exceptions :

  • Source level with SPS2 or below
  • Exceptions mentioned explicitly in the related (Example: SAP HANA SPS 08 Database Revision 80)

59.What are the security features present in SAP HANA?

Ans:

The following security related features are provided by SAP HANA :

  • Authentication and SSO
  • Authorization
  • User and Role Management
  • Encryption of data communication in Network
  • Encryption of data in Persistence Layer

60.List the steps for upgrading your HANA express edition to HANA 2?

Ans:

The steps for upgrading HANA express edition to HANA 2 are listed below:

  • First Increase memory to 8 GB
  • Also, download the Binary Installer
  • Please then create a temporarily user
  • Uninstalling HANA 1 and Installing HANA 2
  • At last, connect to HANA 2 Cockpit

61.How to a HANA cross join between two nodes in a Graphical Calculation View as HANA is allowing only left and right join?

Ans:

A dummy column can be introduced into a projection by returning a constant (for ex. 1) in both the nodes that user want to join. Now Join the dummy columns. Therefore, technically it is still an inner join but more effectively a cross join.

62.How to view User Detail in S/4 HANA Cloud?

Ans:

  • User Logs in as Administrator.
  • Selecting App “Maintain Business Users”.
  • In the “Logon Status” Dropdown selects “All Users”.
  • Select “Go” for generatng a list view of Users

63.How can the information regarding the HANA parameters, which can be configure online/offline?

Ans:

Open cdexe on the OS side incase you already configured this alia else go to the folder

  • cd/usr/sap/$SAPSYSTEMNAME/SYS/exe

Open the config folder by command

  • “cd config”

Open the Master ini files you need with the editor

Check the hint for the parameter you are looking for, there you will find configure online or offline

64. Define Slt Configuration?

Ans:

Configuration is the meaningful information to establish a connection between source, SLT system and SAP HANA architecture as stated in the SLT system. Programmers are allowed to illustrate a new Configuration in Configuration and Monitoring Dashboard.

65. What Is Stall?

Ans:

The waiting process for data to load from the main memory to the CPU cache is called Stall.

66. Define Different Types Of Information Views.?

Ans:

There are primarily three types of information views in SAP HANA, which are all non-materialized.
• Attribute view
• Analytic view
• Calculation View

67. What Are Configuration And Monitoring Dashboard?

Ans:

They are SLT Replication Application Servers to provide configuration information for data replication. This replication status can also be monitored.

68. What Is Logging Table?

Ans:

Logging table records all replicated changes in the table, which can be further replicated to the target system.

69. How To Define Transformation Rules In Hana?

Ans:

Using advanced replication settings, transformation rules are specified to transfer data from source tables during replication process. For instance, setting rules to covert fields, fill vacant fields and skip records. These rules are structured using advanced replication settings (transaction IUUC_REPL_CONT)

70. Explain The Role Of Transaction Manager And Session?

Ans:

SAP HANA transaction manager synchronizes database transactions keeping the record of closed and open transactions. When a transaction is committed or rolled back, the manager informs all the active stores and engines about the action so that they can perform required actions in time.

71. How Is Sql Statement Processed In Sap Hana?

Ans:

Each SQL statement in SAP HANA is carried out in the form of a transaction. Every time, a new session is allocated to a new transaction.

72. Define Master-controller Job.?

Ans:

A Master-controller job is responsible to build database logging table in the source system. It further creates synonyms and new entries in SLT server admin when the table loads / replicates.

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73. How Users Can Avoid Un-necessary Storage Of Logging Information?

Ans:

Pause the replication process and terminate the schema-related jobs.

74. Is The Table Size In Source System And Sap Hana System Same?

Ans:

No

75. When To Change The Number Of Data Transfer Jobs?

Ans:

The number of data transfer jobs change when the initial loading speed or latency replication time is not up to the mark. At the end of the initial load, the number of initial load jobs may be reduced.

76.List The Merits And Demerits Of Using Row-based Tables.?

Ans:

Merits:

  • No data approach can be faster than row-based if you want to analyze, process and retrieve one record at one time.
  • Row-based tables are useful when there is specific demand of accessing complete record.
  • It is preferred when the table consists of less number of rows.
  • This data storage and processing approach is easier and effective without any aggregations and fast searching.

Demerits:

  • The data retrieval and processing operations involve the complete row, even though all the information is not useful.

77. List Advantages Of Column-based Tables.?

Ans:

  1. 1. Allows smoother parallel processing of data as the data in columns is stored vertically. Thus, to access data from multiple columns, every operation can be allocated to a separate processor core.
  2. 2. Only specific columns need to be approached for Select query and any column can be used for indexing.
  3. 3. Efficient operations since most columns hold unique values and thus, high compression rate.

78. What Table Type Is Preferred In Sap Hana Administration: Column-based Or Row-based?

Ans:

Since analytic applications require massive aggregations and agile data processing, column-based tables are preferred in SAP HANA as the data in column is stored consequently, one after the other enabling faster and easier readability and retrieval. Thus, columnar storage is preferred on most OLAP (SQL) queries. On the contrary, row-based tables force users to read and access all the information in a row, even though you require data from few and/or specific columns.

79. What Is The Main Sap Hana Database Component?

Ans:

Index Server consists of actual data engines for data processing including input SQL and MDX statements and performs authentic transactions.

80.Explain The Concept Of Persistence Layer.?

Ans:

The persistence layer in SAP HANA handles all logging operations and transactions for secured backup and data restoring. This layer manages data stored in both rows and columns and provides steady savepoints. Built on the concept of persistence layer of SAP’s relational database, it ensures successful data restores.
Besides managing log data on the disk, HANA’s persistence layer allows read and write data operations via all storage interfaces.

81. Define Modeling Studio In Sap Hana Administration.?

Ans:

Modeling Studio is an operational tool in SAP HANA based on Eclipse development and administration, which includes live project creation.

The SAP HANA Studio further builds development objects and deploys them, to access and modify data models like HTML and JavaScript files.

It also handles various data services to perform data input from SAP warehouse and other related databases. It is responsible for scheduling data replication tasks.

82. List The Different Compression Techniques In Hana?

Ans:

  • Run-length encoding
  • Cluster encoding
  • Dictionary encoding

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